SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF SOLID WASTE COLLECTION POINTS IN URBAN KATSINA, NORTHERN NIGERIA — By Lawal Auwal Sani DANBUZU

ABSTRACT
There is a considerable amount of indiscriminate refuse disposal in many urban areas, most especially of the third-world countries. This study focuses on the spatial distribution of solid waste collection points in Urban Katsina. It further examined the attitudes and perceptions of the community on the collection points’ usage and the solid waste management system. The methodology employed involved the use of GPS to take the coordinates of the solid waste collection points, GIS to produce maps; and a questionnaire through which 200 copies were distributed accordingly, 122 were filled and returned completely and successfully, and were used for the analysis to make a generalization. The study area was sub-categorized into 78 areas (locations) of which 39 contain only illegal collection points, 27 contain both legal and illegal collection points, while the remaining 12 locations contain only legal collection points. Thus, it was assumed that 100% of the inhabitants in the 12 mentioned locations above dispose their solid waste in the legal collection points, therefore, 10 locations were sampled in a stratified manner; 5 areas (locations) with only illegal (unauthorized) collection points, and the other 5 with a combination of both the legal (authorized) and the illegal (unauthorized) solid waste collection points. And SPSS was used to analyse the data gathered using the questionnaire; and the results were discussed and presented using frequency and cross-tabulated tables, and charts on the attitudes of the community usage of the solid waste collection points and their perceptions toward the refuse management system. The study discovered a total of 741 solid waste collection points distributed unevenly across the 78 areas (locations) of Urban Katsina. Out of the 741 Solid Waste Collection Points only 96 (12.96%) are legal (authorized), while all the other 645 (87.04%) are illegal (unauthorized). The 96 legal (authorized) collection points are made up of two types of collection facilities: Roll-on Roll-off (Roro) and Refuse Collection Centres (RCC), the former are 28 (29.17% of the legal ones), while the later are 68 (70.83%). The research also revealed that the number of indiscriminate solid waste disposal increases as you move from high to low density settlement areas, while the sizes of the refuse hips increase from low to high density settlement areas. Finally, the study find out that no municipal solid waste management can be effective without proper monitoring of its disposal activities, and public enlightenment. …

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
Solid Waste consists of everyday items that is used and then thrown away such as, product packaging, grass clippings, furniture, clothing, bottles, food scraps, newspapers, appliances, paint, and batteries. Wastes come from homes, schools, hospitals, and businesses (EPA, 2011). Man, in an attempt to satisfy his daily needs, engages in the production of goods and services. In the process waste is generated (Beede and Bloom, 1995). Virtually all aspects of manâs productive activities involve the generation of waste (Muhammad, 2007). The way these wastes are handled, stored, collected and disposed can pose risk to the environment and to public health.
Solid waste generation is experiencing a rapid increase all over the world as a result of continuous economic growth, urbanization and industrialization. It is estimated that in 2006 the total amount of municipal solid waste (MSW) generated globally reached 2.02 billion tones, representing a 7% annual increase since 2003. It is further estimated that between 2007 and 2011, global generation of municipal waste will rise by 37.3%, equivalent to roughly 8% increase per year (Global Waste Management Market Report, 2007).
Waste management is a global environmental issue; solid waste management in urban areas is one of major problems facing city planners all over the world. The problem is especially severe in most developing countries where poor planning and lack of adequate resources contribute to the poor state of municipal solid waste management (Obirih-Operah and Post, 2002; Mato, 1999; Doan, 1998; and Mwanthi et al, 1997). Solid waste management according to Ibrahim (2002) is the scientific way or established procedure and sanctioned legislation for the collection, transportation and disposal of waste products which is economically feasible and environmentally viable. Warnless (2009) noted that waste management differs for developed and developing nations, urban and rural areas, for residential and industrial producers.
Recently, increased waste generation and indiscriminate disposal in the major urban centers of Africa have shown that the problem of waste management has become a monster which has rendered abortive most efforts being made by the professionals, city and local governments, and state and federal authorities alike (Onibokun et al., 2000).
According to Solomon (2009) an average Nigerian generates about 0.49kg of solid waste per day. Almost 90% of the total urban waste burden is generated from households and commercial centers. A study by Onibokun et al. (2000) revealed that as a result of improper management strategies, solid waste is disposed in a way that create heaps of refuse littering the entire landscape, road sides and commercial centres, even on the premises of primary, secondary and tertiary institutions.
The management of solid waste is far from being satisfactory in Nigeria. Many parts of the cities and towns do not benefit from any organized waste management services and therefore wastes are unattended to, buried, burnt, or disposed haphazardly. In areas where the authorities do the collection, it is often irregular and sporadic. Recycling of waste is negligible while the methods used for collection, transportation and final disposal are very unsatisfactory. Waste when left unattended for a long time constitutes serious health hazard, causes offensive odour, pollutes underground water sources and decreases environmental aesthetics and quality (Federal Ministry of Environment, 2005).
The inability to manage these wastes effectively in Nigeria becomes an issue of great concern. This is because apart from the destruction of aesthetics of landscape by the waste dumpsites, some of the municipal solid wastes contain both organic and inorganic toxic pollutants (such as heavy metals) that threaten the health of humans and the entire ecosystem (Sridhar et al., 1989). Proper management of solid waste is critical to the health and well being of urban residents (World Bank, 2003). Nigerians had been concerned with solid waste disposal; but their concern had not gone beyond physical removal of waste from the streets. It has been a common practice to dispose solid wastes using open dump or the use of an open burning. Solid waste is piling up faster than finding satisfactory places to put them (Ajibade, 2007; Sada and Odemerho, 1988).
In urban areas, especially in the rapidly urbanizing cities of the developing world, problems and issues of municipal solid waste management are immediate importance. According to Zurbrugg (2003), the phenomenal increase in the volume and diversity of solid wastes generated daily in Nigeria. Heaps of refuse and garbage are common sights in most urban areas of the country. The waste problem has, today, become one of the countryâs major environmental problems. Muhammad (2007) stated that the problem of refuse collection and disposal in the urban areas has occupied the attention of the Federal, State and Local Government authorities. Similarly, public concerns on these issues continue to be expressed from time to time through the electronic and the print media. Furthermore, the attention of the national policy makers has been constantly drawn to the health hazards and potential dangers to natural resources.

1.2 STATEMENT OF RESEARCH PROBLEM
Urban Katsina, the capital of Katsina State, has been experiencing a population growth, since the creation of the state in 1987. As such there is increase in residential, commercial, industrial and institutional land uses leading to urban expansion. The simultaneous increase in population and settlement expansion of the town has a direct effect on the increase in solid waste generation. According to Katsina Waste Management and Pollution Control (2004), 80% of waste generation in Katsina Metropolis is from residential, commercial and institutional landuses; while construction and demolition wastes account for 15%.
The Katsina State Environmental Protection Agency (SEPA) has created designated refuse collection centers for community storage and evacuation. Despite this, refuse litters the entire landscape as observed by Katsina State Department of Waste Management and Pollution Control (2004):

a. A lot of undesignated refuse dumps have been created especially on our main roads, making the area clumsy creating an eyesore. And improper waste disposal is another issue of concern and should be addressed.
b. Our drainages, gutters and other water passages were turn to be refuse collection points thus causing flood during the rainy season; a vectors breading places; and sometimes leading to unpleasant odour due to stagnant of water.

The Katsina State Department of Waste Management and Pollution Control (2004) also added that there is improper allocation and distribution of solid waste collection points in urban Katsina, leading to negative setbacks which should be addressed.

Zakariyaâu (2006) is of the opinion that the proliferation of illegal waste collection sites and indiscriminate dumping of refuse at any available space has now become a common scene in the major towns of Katsina state (Katsina and Funtua). Moreover, the Katsina Waste Management and Pollution Control (2004) admitted that there is no available map showing the distribution of the refuse collection points in Urban Katsina. Thus, the map produced at the end of this study will be of vital importance to both planners and managers. And this is one of the goals of the current study.

1.3 AIM AND OBJECTIVES
The primary aim of the research is to examine the spatial distribution of solid waste collection points in Urban Katsina with a view to understanding the criteria for site selection for collection points.
Under this broad aim, the following specific objectives were achieved:

i. To locate and number the solid waste collection points in urban Katsina,
ii. To study the type of the solid waste collection points and their legality,
iii. To map out the solid waste collection points using GIS tool,
iv. To find out the criteria use for site selection of legal collection points by the Waste Management Agency in urban Katsina, and
v. To find out the attitude of the community on the usage of the solid waste collection points in urban Katsina and the perceptions on the refuse management system

1.4 JUSTIFICATION OF RESEARCH
The alarming rate at which heaps of solid wastes occupy most of Nigerian cities, coupled with the fact that 87% of Nigerians use methods adjudged as insanitary, has not only constituted visual blight and odor nuisance, but also encouraged the breeding of rodents, mosquitoes and other pests of public health importance with their attendant disease outbreak (Federal Ministry of Environment, 2005). The increase in commercial, residential and infrastructural development due to the population growth and urban expansion in urban Katsina is directly affecting the amount of waste generation in the area. Thus, it is of vital importance to study the spatial distribution of the solid waste collection points for both planning and management purposes. Poor distribution of solid waste collection points triggers indiscriminate waste disposal into places like water-ways causing municipal flooding, along the streets causing traffic congestion, and into open spaces and uncompleted buildings causing unpleasant odor due to water stagnant and proximity to human activities. Flooding on Nigeriaâs major roads as experienced in 2011 after a heavy rainfall in Katsina, is due largely to silt and solid waste blocking the drains and other outlet provided. The high incidence of improper waste management related disease, such as cholera, typhoid, diarrhea, malaria, etc, are common in the urban areas. It is a known fact that dirty environment with its attendant health consequences that prevails in most of our cities could scare away tourists and investors (Federal Ministry of Environment, 2005).
This research studied the spatial distribution of the legal solid waste collection points; the criteria for site selection of legal collection points by the Waste Management Agency; and examined the attitudes of the community on the usage of the solid waste collection points and their perceptions on the refuse management system. And then came up with suitable recommendations toward better solid waste management strategy. Moreover, there is no existing map showing the spatial distribution of the solid waste collection points in Urban Katsina, therefore, this study filled that gap by producing the map showing the spatial distribution of both legal and illegal collection points which will be of great importance for both planning and management purposes.

1.5 SCOPE AND LIMITATION
The spatial scope of the study concerns only Urban Katsina, this comprises the urban area of Katsina Local government and some parts of Batagarawa local Government. In terms of the depth of investigation, the research is restricted to the spatial distribution of Solid Waste Collection Points; distinguishing the legal (authorized) from illegal (unauthorized) collection points; their geographical location (coordinates) and addresses; and the criteria for site selection of legal collection points by the Waste Management Agency [the State Environmental Protection Agency (SEPA) specifically] and the attitudes of the community on the usage of the solid waste collection points and the perceptions on the refuse management system.
The limitation of this research is no more than the fact that the researcher has only little familiarization with the study area before the field work, and the study area which comprises the entire Urban Katsina is very large, as such, there might be overlapping and encroachments in some cases with respect to the locations (areas) of the solid waste collection points, as he only recorded what the surrounding people have told him as the name of the area. However, the researcher had tried as much as possible to minimize all sorts of errors.

1.6 STUDY AREA
1.6.1 Location
Urban Katsina is the capital of Katsina state; it is located between latitude 120 451N and130 151N, and Longitude 70 301 and 80 00E (Figure 1). The location is at the extreme part of Northern Nigeria, some 30Km from the Nigeria-Niger border. The city is administratively headed by an emir, with districts and ward as sub units for administrative convenience. Urban Katsina comprises of two Local Government Areas, i.e. Katsina and some parts of Batagarawa Local Government Areas (Zayyana, 2010).
The historical importance of Katsina, together with its strategic location in Northern Nigeria had greatly contributed to its rapid population growth rate (see page 12: Population and Settlement). In recent times, the population has mainly drawn to the town as a result of increased employment opportunities, following the establishment of many more governmental and private departments. The impact of several educational institutions in building the population is particularly remarkable. The main ethnic groups are the Hausa and Fulani. The Fulani are primarily settled or semi-settled cattle-herders, and sometimes with some limited crop production activities. The Hausa are largely crop cultivators, but who also often keep some animals. A History of association and interaction between the two ethnic groups has led to merger of culture and tradition, mainly through the unifying influence of Islam, the Hausa language and inter-marriages.

In addition, other ethnic groups with lower, but still significant importance in Katsina townâs social and economic development include Igbo, Yoruba, Nupe, Kanuri, Tiv and others (Zayyana, 2010).

1.6.2 Physical Conditions
1.6.2.1 Climate
The pool of rainfall data for Katsina shows that the climate is humid tropical, characterized by a relatively long dry season and somewhat smaller seasons. The rainfall, and indeed throughout West Africa, depend upon the interaction of the warm moist Tropical maritime air mass and the hot and dry tropical Continental air mass. The two air masses met along the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) which moves in response to the seasonal disposition of the overhead sun. Rainfall amounts are generally related to the thickness of the Tropical Maritime air mass. The tropical Maritime air mass is wedge-shaped and thins northwards. Consequently, when the ITCZ moves northwards over the study area in May, rainfall becomes progressively heavier and more steady, reaching its peak at about August. In September, as the ITCZ moves southwards, rainfall becomes lighter and sporadic.
The rainfall is concentrated in the months of July, August and September, with figures generally from 700 to 800mm annually. Despite this however, rains have been noted to start from the month of May and June of each year with very limited intensity and duration. Similarly, monthly total, or annual total, can vary considerably. The pattern shows a very strong seasonal cycle, the large variability from year to year, and periods of relatively high and relatively low rainfall. The period from 1926 to 1965 was one of the relatively wet spell while the period from 1966 to 1997 was one of the dry spell, and period from 1998 to 2007 a wet spell again.
The low total amount and sporadic nature of rainfall often results in such problems as excessive or early inundation or desiccation of Fadama, middle-season water stress, multiple seed planting, etc. The mean monthly dry season temperatures are above 300C, but significantly drop in the harmattan periods which stretch from November to February when the dry North East trade winds prevail. During this period, the ambient air mass is very dry and cold, dusty during the day and chilly dry at night. During this period, nigh temperatures can drop as low as between 18 and 210C, resulting in a relatively high diurnal range of temperature. In the rainy season month of July and September, temperatures of about 22 to 280C prevail. Four distinct seasons are experienced in the area, these are: dry and cool, dry and hot, wet and warm and dry and warm seasons respectively.
Relative humidity in Katsina and its environs never exceed 20-25%, the highest humidity in the area occurs in the months of August and September, while the lowest occur in the months of February and March (Zayyana, 2010).
The volume and composition of solid waste generated in urban Katsina change considerably with the change of season. Moreover, solid waste collection points situated very close settlements or other forms human activities are in most cases very disturbing because of the bad odour associated with wetness, and it also make human movement difficult.

1.6.2.2 Geology
The continental sediments of Katsina plains consist of feldspatic clayey sandstones and grits with small basal pebble beds. The sediments have maximum thickness of about 100m and the regional dip is to the north-west. The sediments thin to the south and, in places, only the pebble beds remain on the higher interfluves. The southern boundary is diffuse and outliners are frequent, south of the main body. The sediments have been equated with the Gundumi formation of the Lullummenden Basin and are therefore mid cretaceous in age (Ologe, 1985).
Alluvial deposits are associated with the present valleys. The older alluvium, which is partly colluvial in origin, forms a valley fill and may be contemporaneous with a high terrace found along Ginzo River. Aeolian deposits overlie the older alluvium. The Aeolian mantle lacks definite pattern and also shows a marked variation in thickness. The younger alluvium occurs along the Tille River within the present floodplain. Recent alluvium deposits are associated with the present floodplain of the major rivers in the area (Ologe, 1985).

1.6.2.3 Landforms
The Landforms reflects the sedimentary rock formation of the area. The landscape is relatively flat, almost featureless, typically less than two degrees, and of about 510m at the Katsina city center (MLSK, 2008). The plain is underlain by clayey sandstones and grits with small basal pebble. Rock-out crops are generally absent, other than into the small inliers of Basement complex. Laterite capping only occur frequently and drainage texture is considerably much coarser than on basement complex plains further south of the area (Zayyana, 2010).

1.6.2.4 Hydrology, Hydrogeology and Water Resource
The main river draining the town is River Ginzo, which passes through the town and move northwards. Drainage pattern of the area is dendritic to sub-parallel and northward in direction, with widely space drainage lines. Stream flow in the area strongly reflects the climatic environment and, in particular, the season and torrential nature of the rainfall. Thus, three main types of stream flow pattern have been recognized in the area:

1. Perennial flows: Low dry season discharges with flash floods superimposed on high rainy season discharges. This flow pattern occurs on the largest river i.e. Ginzo and major tributaries.
2. Seasonal flow: Zero dry season flow, flash floods superimposed on rainy season flow which may be high or low depending on catchments area. The river along which Tille is located to this category.
3. Flash flow only i.e., there is flowing water in the stream channel only during and for a short while after run-off producing storms.

The alluvial sediments in the flood plains, which range from gravels to clay with coarser material along present and old river beds, become saturated during the rainy season and may drain away along the river course during the dry season or, become dammed by impervious rock or clay barriers.
Water in local wells tapping aquifers is usually at a depth of between 25 to 45m, and residents draw water from such deep wells throughout the year. However, farmers and pastoralists alike frequently make shallow wells along the bed of Ginzo river tributary straddling the area, to 5m, and obtain water from this depth at least into late January. The nature and amount of the water supply, together with availability of grazing resources, dictate the movement of cattle, goat and sheep in the area (Zayyana, 2010). People in Urban Katsina formed the habit of dumping refuse along rivers, streams and other waterways thus making further contamination of the water as most of the urban sources are domestic activities, car wash, small scale industries, waste water among others. Underground water is also at risk of being contaminated by hips of solid waste through seepage (Zango, 2010).

1.6.2.5 Soils
Soils in the area, as elsewhere in Nigeria, represent an interface between intensive chemical weathering of rocks, and an active and intermittent surface and subsurface denudation system, fuelled by intensive rainfall and rapid runoff. The properties of the soils, therefore, represent complex interrelationships between intensity of weathering and rate of lateral and vertical eluviations of materials, which are in turn related to lithology, topography, climate, vegetation and other environmental controls (MLSK, 2008).
The soil of the study area fall under tropical ferruginous soils ((Alfisols) and weakly developed alluvial soils (Hydromorphic soil) of the major streams. These soils are found on recent sediments of varying ongm, or older Aeolian sediments which have either been redistributed by erosion or which have evolved under a semi-arid climate and show no characteristics of the ferruginous tropical features associated with seasonal water logging so that many have hydromorphic tendencies and grade into major soil group (MLSK, 2008).

1.6.2.6 Biodiversity
Lying within the Northern Sudan savanna, the vegetation is dominated by fine-leaved Acacia spp. and their associates. These trees include Adonsonia digitata, Parkia bigloboza, Anogeissum leiocarpus, Afrormosia laxiflora, Bombax costatum, Boswellia dalzielii, Burkea africana etc. The common shrub and shrubby species include Annona senegalensis, Bridelia ferruginea, Gardenia spp, Grewia mollis, Hymenocardia acida, Lannea kerstingii, May tenus senegalensis, Nauclea latifolia, Pillostigma thonningii etc.
The trees characteristically grow long tap roots and thick barks both of which make it possible for them to withstand the long dry season and bush fires. The grass cover is mostly perennial, with durable roots, which remain underground after stalks are burnt away or wilted in the dry season only to germinate with the first rains. The precise and mixture of the various species is determined by such factors as soil type, moisture conditions, and the degree of human disturbance. The main physiographic communities encountered in order of importance are: cultivated parkland, shrub savanna and floodplain grassland. This biodiversity has been strongly modified as a result of urban expansion and construction (MLSK, 2008).

1.6.2.7 Population and Settlements
Urban Katsina has a fairly large population, enjoys Sub-Sahara African rate of population increase with average birth and death rates of 4.2% and 1.6% respectively (Zango, 2010). As of 1952 census, the population figure was 52,672 and rose to 223,644 in 1991, by then it had already acquired the status of a state capital. The population figure after the 2006 census was recorded to be 327,376 (National Population Commission, 2006).
The settlement pattern has characterized by two categories base on population density. The first category is the high to medium density settlement s which include the Cikin Birni (Old City) with their peripheral areas respectively. While the second category is the low density settlements of Government Reservation Areas (GRA), Kofar Marusa Low Cost and the New Layout among others. The Cikin Birni which is the old city and the most densely populated and the most densely populated area in the metropolis have a unique cultural setting that affects the people in the area. Most buildings are made up of mud and clay, closely packed together and surrounded with walls (Hassan, 2008) (figure 2).

1.6.2.8 Land Uses
Land use in the study area is dominated by urban activities, such as residential, institutional, commercial and industrial land uses, with small area mostly undeveloped for farming. Aside from major urban land uses mentioned above, other land uses such as livestock production and gathering are also carried out in the area. Residential area cover most part of the study area, different land uses such as commercial, institutional, and educational are all located within the residential areas. Sabuwar Unguwa extension is the major area functioning as industrial layout. Industries such as steel rolling, packaging, beverages processing etc are found in this area. Commercial activities happened to be growing very fast in the area. There are many smalls and one major central market.
The popular markets here are Katsina central market, Kofar Marusa market and the old market (Tsohuwar Kasuwa). Also there are many departmental stores, shopping centers and supermarkets- where local, national and foreign commodities are sold. Institutional land uses can be found at various locations within urban Katsina. Tertiary institutions include Umaru Musa Yar'adua University, Federal College of Education, Hassan Usman Katsina Polytechnic, and School of Nursing and Midwifery in addition to numerous nursery/primary and secondary schools both governmental and privately owned.
Agricultural activities are confined to open spaces within the built-up areas and at suburb, and on the stretches of flood plains and the little floodable plains of the little floodable part of the low terrace depressions that retains water in the area and other undeveloped lands within the area and other extensive areas just outside the city. The most common market gardening crops grown are Okra, Cabbage; Spinach etc Perennial crops and fruits. The area also supports large number of cattle, sheep and goats. All livestock in the area graze on natural pastures and shrubs for their nutritional needs, and supplementary feeding from the owners. Gathering of non timber forest products (NTFPs) form a small but important part of human activities in the area. Such items provide subsistence goods and services, as well as items of trade. Throughout the area, plant medicines are used for both curative and preventive treatments. Fuel wood constitutes the main energy source for cooking. Besides, gathering processing and trading of the products provides a good source of supplementary income to many households in the area (Zayyana, 2010).

CHAPTER TWO
LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 CONCEPT OF SOLID WASTE

…loading

2.10 THE ROLE AND RELEVANCE OF GIS IN SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT
Technological development in computer science has introduced Geographic Information System (GIS) as an innovative tool in solid waste management including landfill process (Kontos et al, 2003). GIS combines spatial data (maps, aerial photographs, Satellite images, etc) with non spatial data including both the quantitative and qualitative. The role of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) in solid waste management is very large as many aspects of its planning and operations are highly dependent on spatial data. In general, GIS plays a key role in maintaining account data to facilitate collection operations; customer service; analyzing optimal locations for transfer stations; planning routes for vehicles transporting waste from residential, commercial and industrial customers to transfer stations and from transfer stations to landfills; locating new landfills and monitoring the landfill. GIS is a tool that not only reduces time and cost of the site selection, but also provide a digital data bank for future monitoring program of the site. It has taken an initiative to setup a GIS like ArcInfo and ArcView as key components for managing its information (Keir, 1997). Technological development in computer science has introduced geographic information (GIS) as an innovative tool in landfill.
The trend towards desk top GIS has been increasing significantly in the last few. This is mainly due to the increase in the PC capabilities and reduction in cost. This trend has compelled GIS software vendors to redesign their strategy to suit the situation. For example, ESRI has release ArcInfo NT as a substitute to ArcInfo for workstation and a similar case has been adopted by many other GIS software vendors such as SmallWorld and GenaSys years (Lee, 1997). According to a study carried out Yagoub and Buyong (1998), the user interface built using ArcView GIS and ArcGIS is mainly due to the following reasons:

⢠Low cost desktop GIS.
⢠Customization is based on Object Oriented (OO) language using Avenue.
⢠Supports Inter-Application Communication (IAC) with other applications through Dynamic Data Exchange (DDE, Dynamic Link Library (DLL), and Remote Procedure Control (RPC).
⢠Supports Client/Server DBMS access anywhere on a network (dBase, SQL).
⢠Supports integration of different data sets such as CAD, Shape files, ArcInfo coverage, multimedia image, and link real-time events such as GPS.
⢠Supports internet applications using ArcView and ArcGIS Internet Map Servers, and Map Objects.
⢠Its extensions such as Spatial Analyst, Network Analyst, and 3D module are vital for future monitoring of the dumping site.

CHAPTER THREE
MATERIALS AND METHODS

3.1 INTRODUCTION
This chapter discussed the methodological aspect of the research, comprising the spatial and non spatial techniques used in both data gathering and analysis.

3.2 METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION
The research data, consisting of both primary and secondary data were gathered through pre-field work and detailed field survey.

3.2.1 Pre-Field Work
The pre-field work started with review of literature from related journals, records from the respective government agencies — principally the State Environmental Protection Agency (SEPA) and Katsina State Urban planning Development Authority (KUPDA). Other sources include internet and textbooks.
The list and addresses of the solid waste collection points, and other records was collected from the State Environmental Protection Agency (SEPA); this served as a guide to identify, locate, number and distinguish their type and legality. And there was preliminary reconnaissance to some collection points with respect to their types and legality through which familiarization was achieved. Moreover, the criteria for site selection of legal collection points by the Waste Management Agency in the study area were also obtained through secondary mean of data gathering; principally, through interviewing the state Environmental Protection Agencyâs personnel.

3.2.2 Detailed Field Survey
Global Positioning System (GPS) was used to take the co-ordinates of the solid waste collection points, through which a database was created and used to record the coordinates, legality, locations and addresses of the collection points. A digital camera was also used to take pictures of some selected solid wastes collection points so as to show their type/nature. Moreover, an interview with the top ranking personnel of the State Environmental Protection Agency (SEPA) was conducted to find out the criteria they use for site selection of legal collection points in the study area. And finally, a questionnaire was administered to analyze the community usage of the solid waste collection points and the perceptions on the refuse management system in the study area.

3.3 SAMPLES AND SAMPLING TECHNIQUE
The study area was sub-categorized into 78 locations of which 39 contain only illegal collection points, 27 contain both legal and illegal collection points, while the remaining 12 locations contain only legal collection points (see table 4 below). Thus, it was assumed that 100% of the inhabitants in the 12 mentioned locations above dispose their solid waste in the legal collection points, therefore, only 10 locations were sampled in a stratified manner; 5 areas (locations) with only illegal (unauthorized) collection points, and the other 5 with combination of both the legal (authorized) and the illegal (unauthorized) solid waste collection points. 200 copies of questionnaire were distributed accordingly, 122 were filled and returned completely and successfully, thus used for the analysis to make a generalization.

3.4 METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS
3.4.1 Spatial Data Analysis
3.4.1.1 Geo-Referencing and Digitization
Urban Katsina was zoomed and extracted from satellite imagery, Google Earth imagery specifically. The extracted image was then imported to Geographic Information System (GIS) software, specifically ArcGIS 9.3, and then geo-referenced and digitized to produce a digital map. Population density map was also produced base on the field experience and satellite imagery observation (2011). Land-uses and housing pattern were used as guide.

3.4.1.2 Mapping the Distribution of the Solid Waste Collection Points
The coordinates of the solid waste collection points taken during the fieldwork were imported into the ArcGIS 9.3 as text file, then converted to shape file to show the spatial distribution of the solid waste collection points on the digital maps. Points (dots) of different shapes and colors were used to show the collection points; the types of collection points as well as the legality. Some aspect of the information gathered from interviewing the personnel of the State Environmental Protection Agency (SEPA) was also included in the mapping related discussions.

3.4.2 Non-Spatial Data Analysis
The Questionnaires distributed in field were retrieved and analyze using SPSS software. Frequency distribution and cross tabulation of parameters were carried out to come up with tables for some parameters and charts for others deepending on the appropriateness. Some aspect of information gathered from interviewing the personnel of the State Environmental Protection Agency (SEPA) was also included in the non spatial aspect related discussions.

CHAPTER FOUR
RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

4.1 INTRODUCTION
This chapter has been split into two — Spatial and Non-Spatial Data analyses. The former discussed the mapping aspect of the research and the distribution of the solid waste collection points over space, while the later presented the criteria used by the State Environmental Protection Agency (SEPA) for selecting a site to fix an authorised collection point; and also discussed the aspect community attitude concerning the usage of collection the points and the community perceptions toward the refuse management system, all in Urban Katsina.

4.2 SPATIAL DATA ANALYSIS (Mapping)
The Solid Waste Collection points in Urban Katsina irrespective of whether legal (authorized) or illegal (unauthorized) have been located and numbered to come up with a total number of 741 distributed unevenly across 78 areas (locations) in Urban Katsina. Although the distribution of the collection points is generally uneven, but the unevenness is less in certain locations (areas) and more in others (figure 3). And this has to do with the settlement pattern and the population density of the area (figure 4).
The settlement pattern of Urban Katsina has been characterized into two categories base on population density. The first category is the high to medium density settlements which include the Cikin Birni (Old City) and their peripheral areas respectively. While the second category is the low density settlements of Government Reservation Areas (GRA), Kofar Marusa Low Cost and the New Layout among others outside the city wall. The Cikin Birni which is the old city and the most densely populated area in the metropolis consists of buildings closely packed together thus providing no space for indiscriminate waste disposal all over the landscape unlike in the case of the low and medium density settlement areas.

Moreover, the characteristics of solid waste collection points between high density and medium-low density areas is different in the sense that most of the collection points within former are over used, as large volumes of refuse hips were observed during fieldwork (2011) at both the authorized and the unauthorized disposal sites, most especially around the core Cikin Birni (Old City). Sabuwar Unguwa being a medium density urban extension and the major area functioning as industrial layout with industries such as steel rolling, packaging, beverages processing etc accommodates 73 solid waste collection points of the study area of which all are unauthorized as not even a single one is provided by the respective agency — The State Environmental Protection Agency (SEPA), and this is the highest number across the whole locations making up to 9.85% of the entire 741 collection points; and 11.32% of the authorized collection points in the study area.
Out of the 741 Solid Waste Collection Points only 96 (12.96%) are legal (authorized), while all the other 645 (87.04%) are illegal (unauthorized). The State Environmental Protection Agency (SEPA) classified them into that (legal and illegal) base on their provider. The collection points provided jointly or completely by the agency are cartegrized as legal ones, while the sites where people are just disposing their household refuse without any authority from The State Environmental Protection Agency (SEPA) are cartegrised as illegal. The former are of two categories â A three sided walled square piece of land called Refuse Collection Center (RCC) and a moveable metal container called Roll-on Roll-off (Roro); while the later are unauthorized sites like open space, water channels, roadside, uncompleted buildings among others (plate 1 to 6).
The Spatial Distribution of the legal and the illegal collection points as shown on figure 4 and 5 revealed that the illegal collection points are more concentrated in the low and medium density population areas of Urban Katsina. The high population density areas have fewer collection points but larger hips of refuse as no space is provided for indiscriminate waste disposal all over the landscape unlike in the low and medium density settlement areas. The illegal (unauthorized) solid waste collection points can also be found along the old city wall as well as along water channels including the two (2) major rivers â River Ginzo and River Tille.

Despite the fact that houses in Cikin Birni (old Katsina city) are closely packed together more especially in the core area, yet the State Environmental Protection Agency (SEPA) insisted that the government had managed to fixed a reasonable number of the authorized solid waste collection points at some strategic positions, though not adequate. Moreover, although the population of an area is taken into consideration before fixing a solid waste collection facility as stated by the State Environmental Protection Agency (SEPA), and despite the high population density of the core Cikin Birni, yet SEPA confessed that some of the household refuse disposers in the area have to travel for a long distance before they could get where to dispose a refuse irrespective of whether legal or illegal site.
Moreover, in addition to the settlement pattern, another reason why the solid waste collection points are not adequate in the high population density areas of urban Katsina, most especially the core Cikin Birni is the fact that delegates from certain communities of the areas have been going sporadically to request from the State Environmental Protection Agency (SEPA) that they want close down a given solid waste collection point for one reason or another, which could be proximity to utilities like road, waterway, residences, etc; or because of the bad odor among other reasons irrespective of its legality. And in most cases permissions were granted.
The 96 legal (authorized) solid waste collection points in the study area are made up of two types of collection facilities: Roll-on Roll-off (Roro) and Refuse Collection Centers (RCC) as stated earlier, the former are 28 (29.17%), while the later are 68 (70.83%). The Refuse Collection Centers (RCC) is more evenly distributed within the city wall than the Roll-on Roll-off (Roro), while the Roll-on Roll-off (Roro) is made available adequately at areas like Government Reservation Area (GRA), Layout, Kofar Kaura, Dutsen Safe Low Cost and the likes (figure 6).
The State Environmental Protection Agency (SEPA) stated that the Roll-on Roll-off (Roro) are normally fixed at places that are not appropriate for the Refuse Collection Centers (RCC) such as roadside, near shops or other form of public activity area. However, it can also be found very close to the Refuse Collection Centers (RCC) serving as an extension to it when needed.

Plate 1: Indiscriminate Waste Disposal at Daki Tara, behind UBE primary school

Plate 2: Indiscriminate Waste Disposal at Sabon Layi, Dangamji
Plate 3: A Refuse Collection Center (RCC) at Galandanchi, behind Court

Plate 4: A Refuse Collection Center (RCC) at Kofar Yandaka, near Kofar Yandaka Gate

Plate 5: Roll-On Roll-Off (Roro) at Unguwar Yari, CPS Junction

Plate 6: Roll-On Roll-Off (Roro) at Kofar Soro, near Magajin Gariâs Office
4.2 NON-SPATIAL DATA ANALYSIS
4.2.1 SEPA Criteria for Site Selection and some other Attributes
A team of The State Environmental Protection Agency (SEPA) under the leadership of a Unit Head, Alhaji Nura Abubakar Kankia had been interviewed in the SEPA conference Room on the 18th of September, 2011, and the information below was gathered:
4.2.1.1 Criteria for Site Selection
The State Environmental Protection Agency (SEPA) had set up its criteria for selecting a site to fix a legal (authorized) collection points, these are:

ï¶ The population of an area is taken into consideration before fixing a solid waste collection point in an area so as to avoid underuse by fixing a multiple collection points in a very low population density area. As this is but a waste of resource as there are likely other shareable collection points in the neighboring areas;

ï¶ The community leaders of the area which comprises the elders and traditional leaders are contacted by the State Environmental Protection Agency (SEPA) and then ask them to make a formal request for solid waste collection point in their area from the agency, or in some cases require that the community should make the request from the local government council; and

ï¶ The sites to be selected for the collection points are owned by the government.
4.2.1.2 SEPA Evacuation Facilities
The State Environmental Protection Agency (SEPA) informed the researcher that they only have two tractors for the management of the 28 Roll-on Roll-off (Roro); and three truck loaders but only one functioning, and eight tippers for the evacuation of solid waste from the Refuse Collection Centers (RCC) and the Indiscriminate Waste Disposal, 68 and 645 respectively. However, they do hire from the surrounding local government councils (Katsina and Batagarawa Local Government councils) and some construction companies, specifically Borini Prono and Maâa Gafai Construction Companies, to meet up the required facilities.
4.2.1.3 Private Waste Management Agencies
In addition to the State Environmental Protection Agency (SEPA) that is responsible for managing entire waste of not only urban Katsina, but Katsina State, there are also four private waste management agencies that alongside with SEPA manage the solid waste in Urban Katsina (table 4).
Table 4: Urban Katsina Private Waste Management Agencies and their Services
SN Private Waste Management Agencies Services
1 Immaculate Company Responsible for the provision of household refuse storage facilities to their clients, they also transport the refuse to dispose at collection points. This company is responsible for managing the entire household refuse generated at Barhim Housing Estate, behind Katsina State Secretariat, and some part of Umaru Musa YarâAdua University.

2 Express Environmental Services Operates similar services as Immaculate Company above, but for the Federal College of Education and Diamond Bank branches in urban Katsina.

3 Tri-Dynamic Waste Management Company Operates similar services as Express Environmental Services above for its respective clients. These include: Federal Medical Center and the Administrative Blocks of Umaru Musa YarâAdua University. The company also operates special services such as general cleaning when invited among others.
4 Annur Cleaners operation is mainly special services such as general cleaning, soak-away evacuation, spraying, fumigation, etc.
Source: State Environmental Protection Agency, 2011

4.2.2 Community Attitude on the Usage of Solid Waste Collection Points and Perceptions on the Refuse Management System (Questionnaire Analysis)

4.2.2.1 General Frequency Distribution
The following frequency tdistributions represented by pie charts show a kind of variation among the Urban Katsina population in terms of facility usage, attitudes toward the solid waste collection points as well as the communiry perceptions on the refuse management system.

(a) Household Refuse Storage Facilities
Most of the households in Urban Katsina store their refuse in Refuse Bins (65.6%), while very few use means (5.7%) that are other than Refuse Bag, Drum or Refuse Bin as shown on figure 7.

(b) Provider of Household Refuse Storage Facilities
Almost half (50%) of the householdsâ Refuse Storage Facilities are provided by the State Environmental Protection Agency (SEPA), while Private Waste Management Agencies provided the fewest (2.5%) as shown on fgure 8.

(c) Refuse Transporter from Household to the Collection Point for Disposal
Majority of the households in Urban Katsina use pay laborers to dispose their refuse (26.2%), while very few households rely on the adult men from within (5.7%) to dispose the refuse as shown on figure 9.

(d) Frequency of Household Refuse Disposal
Highest percent of the households in urban Katsina dispose their Solid Waste every day (47.5%), while the fewest dispose theirs occasionally (4.1%) as shown on figure 10.

(e) Sites for Refuse Disposal
Although most of the Solid Waste Collection Point are unauthorized (647 of 741, 87.3%) yet the respondents insist that most of them dispose their refuse at authorized (legal) collection points (54.1%), while the fewest use to dispose theirs at means other than Open Space, water channel and authorized collection points (3.3%) as shown on figure 11.

(f) Distance from Household to the Collection Point
More than half of the population (53.28%) walks less than 50m to dispose their refuse, while only 9.02% dispose theirs at distance greater than 150m as shown on figure 12.

(g) Refuse Evacuator from the Collection Points
Most of the respondents (61%) admitted that it is the State Environmental Protection Agency is carrying out the evacuation of solid waste from collection points in their areas, others stated that it is the local community (17.2%), while some said it is voluntary Agencies. Only 9.8% insist that no evacuation is carrying out in their locality. (figure 13).

(h) Frequency of Refuse Evacuation from the Collection Point
A greater percent of the respondent (34.4%) admitted that evacuation irrespective of evacuator is carried out weekly. Although 9.8% of the respondents insisted that there is no one that is responsible for evacuation their refuse from the collection point , yet only 5.7% of population when responding to how frequent the refuse evacuation, admitted that there is no evacuation at all (figure 14).

(i) Appropriateness of the Refuse Management System of Areas
Although most of the Solid Waste Collection Point are unauthorized (647 of 741, 87.3%) yet most of the respondents(60.7%) insisted that the Refuse Management System of their area is appropriate, 13.1% insisted that the system is very appropriate, while fewest of the respondents (8.2%) admitted that the system is very inappropriate (figure 15).

4.3.2 CROSS TABULATIONS
Cross tabulation was used to analyze the relationship between different parameters, and this is shown in tables and figures.
4.3.2.1 Cross-tabulation of Location with other Parameters
(a) Location and Household Refuse Storage Facilities

Table 5: Location and Household Refuse Storage Facilities
Household refuse storage facility Total
Location Refuse Bag Drum Refuse Bin Other Means
Bayan Polo Count 1 2 6 0 9
% within Location 11.1% 22.2% 66.7% .0% 100.0%
Filin Samji Count 1 1 12 0 14
% within Location 7.1% 7.1% 85.7% .0% 100.0%
Gidan Dawa Count 3 0 8 1 12
% within Location 25.0% .0% 66.7% 8.3% 100.0%
GRA Count 1 4 9 0 14
% within Location 7.1% 28.6% 64.3% .0% 100.0%
Jan Bango Count 1 2 7 1 11
% within Location 9.1% 18.2% 63.6% 9.1% 100.0%
Kofar Marusa Count 1 4 8 0 13
% within Location 7.7% 30.8% 61.5% .0% 100.0%
Layout Count 3 3 6 0 12
% within Location 25.0% 25.0% 50.0% .0% 100.0%
Rafin Dadi Count 0 4 11 0 15
% within Location .0% 26.7% 73.3% .0% 100.0%
Sabuwar Unguwa Count 2 0 9 1 12
% within Location 16.7% .0% 75.0% 8.3% 100.0%
Tudun Yanlifidda Count 1 1 4 4 10
% within Location 10.0% 10.0% 40.0% 40.0% 100.0%
Total Count 14 21 80 7 122
% within Location 11.5% 17.2% 65.6% 5.7% 100.0%
Source: Field Work, 2011

In all the 10 sampled areas, if not Tudun Yanlifidda, where the percentage of the households that store their refuse at means other than refuse Bag, drum and Refuse Bin raised high to meet that of Refuse bag (40%), most of the households use Refuse Bin, with the highest percent at Filin Samji (85.7%) as shown in table 5.

(b) Location and Provider of household refuse storage facility

Table 6: Location and Provider of Household Refuse Storage Facility
Provider of household refuse storage facility Total

Location Self SEPA Voluntary Organization Private Waste Management Agency
Bayan Polo Count 5 4 0 0 9
% within Location 55.6% 44.4% .0% .0% 100.0%
Filin Samji Count 3 11 0 0 14
% within Location 21.4% 78.6% .0% .0% 100.0%
Gidan Dawa Count 5 6 0 1 12
% within Location 41.7% 50.0% .0% 8.3% 100.0%
GRA Count 8 4 2 0 14
% within Location 57.1% 28.6% 14.3% .0% 100.0%
Jan Bango Count 6 4 1 0 11
% within Location 54.5% 36.4% 9.1% .0% 100.0%
Kofar Marusa Count 5 4 2 2 13
% within Location 38.5% 30.8% 15.4% 15.4% 100.0%
Layout Count 5 6 1 0 12
% within Location 41.7% 50.0% 8.3% .0% 100.0%
Rafin Dadi Count 4 10 1 0 15
% within Location 26.7% 66.7% 6.7% .0% 100.0%
Sabuwar Unguwa Count 6 6 0 0 12
% within Location 50.0% 50.0% .0% .0% 100.0%
Tudun Yanlifidda Count 4 6 0 0 10
% within Location 40.0% 60.0% .0% .0% 100.0%
Total Count
% within Location 51 41.8% 61 50.0% 7
5.7% 3
2.5% 122
100.0%
Source: Field Work, 2011

The State Environmental Protection Agency (SEPA) provided half of the Household Refuse Storage Facilities (50%) in Urban Katsina followed by self provision by the household themselves (41.8%), 78% and 66.7% of the household refuse storage at Filin Samji and Rafin Dadi are provided by SEPA respectively, while in areas like GRA and Jan Bango where self provision is higher, 57.1% and 54.5% of the household refuse storage facilities are provided by the households themselves respectively. At areas like Sabuwar Kasuwa, half of the fercilities are self provided, while the other half are provided by SEPA. Voluntary Organization and Private Waste Management Agency provided 5.7% and 2.5% of the household refuse collection facilities in Urban Katsina respectively (table 6).

…loading

CHAPTER FIVE
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1 SUMMARY OF THE MAJOR FINDINGS
This study had attempted to analyze the spatial distribution of solid waste collection points in urban Katsina, Northern Nigeria. In order to achieve the aim and the associated objectives of the study certain methodologies were carefully employed ranging from fieldwork, detail fieldwork and post fieldwork.
The pre-field work consist of review of literature, securing the list and addresses of the solid waste collection points from the State Environmental Protection Agency (SEPA) records to serve as a guide for identifying, locating, numbering and distinguishing their type and legality, and a preliminary reconnaissance to some collection points with respect to their types and legality through which familiarization was achieved.
The detail fieldwork was divided into spatial and non-spatial data collection. The former consist of using a survey device, specifically the Ground Positioning System (GPS) to take the coordinates of the solid waste collection points; creating a database to record the coordinates, legality, locations and addresses of the collection points; using a digital camera to take pictures of some selected solid wastes collection points so as to show their type/nature. While the later consist of administering a questionnaire to analyze the attitudes of the community usage of the solid waste collection points, and also conducting an interview with a team of personnel from the State Environmental Protection Agency (SEPA) to find out the criteria they use for site selection of legal collection points in the study area.
The Solid Waste Collection points in Urban Katsina irrespective of whether legal (authorized) or illegal (unauthorized) have been located and numbered to come up with a total number of 741 distributed unevenly across 78 areas (locations) in Urban Katsina. Out of the 741 Solid Waste Collection Points only 96 (12.96%) are legal (authorized), while all the other 645 (87.04%) are illegal (unauthorized). The 96 legal (authorized) solid waste collection points in the study area were made up of two types of collection facilities: Roll-on Roll-up (Roro) and Refuse Collection Centers (RCC) as stated earlier, the former are 28 (29.17%), while the later are 68 (70.83%).
With regards to the questionnaire analysis, the study area was sub-categorized into 78 locations of which 39 contain only illegal collection points, 27 contain both legal and illegal collection points, while the remaining 12 locations contain only legal collection points. Thus, it was assumed that 100% of the inhabitants in the 12 mentioned locations above dispose their solid waste in the legal collection points, therefore, only 10 locations were sampled in a stratified manner; 5 areas (locations) with only illegal (unauthorized) collection points, and the other 5 with a combination of both the legal (authorized) and the illegal (unauthorized) solid waste collection points. 200 copies of questionnaire were distributed accordingly, 122 were filled and returned completely and successfully. And these were used for the analysis to make a generalization.
The post fieldwork consists mainly of the analysis of data which was also divided into Spatial and Non-Spatial Data Analysis. The Spatial Data Analysis was Geo-Referencing and Digitization; and then mapping the Distribution of the Solid Waste Collection Points. The former consist of zooming and extracting the extent of Urban Katsina from Google Earth satellite imagery, importing the extracted image to ArcGIS 9.3 Geographic Information System (GIS) software, and then geo-referencing and digitizing the imagery to produce digital maps. Population density map was also produced base on field experience and satellite imagery observation using land-uses and housing pattern as guide.While the later consist of importing the coordinates of the solid waste collection points taken during the fieldwork into the ArcGIS 9.3 as text file, converting them to shape file to show the spatial distribution on the digital maps. Points (dots) were used to show the solid waste collection points; the types of collection points as well as the legality were shown using different symbols (points) in terms of shape and color variations.
As for the Non-Spatial Data Analysis, questionnaires distributed in field were retrieved and analyzed using SPSS software. Frequency distribution and cross tabulation of parameters were carried out to come up with tables and charts (pie or bar) for different paprameters depending on the appropriateness to show a kind of variation among the Urban Katsina population in terms of facility usage, and attitude and perception toward solid waste collection points and the refuse management system. The Information gathered from interviewing the personnel of the State Environmental Protection Agency (SEPA) was used to support the discussions in both the spatial and non-spatial data analysis.
In addition to the State Environmental Protection Agency (SEPA) that is responsible for managing entire waste of not only urban Katsina, but Katsina State, there were also four private waste management agencies that alongside with SEPA manages the solid waste in Urban Katsina. These are: Immaculate Company, Express Environmental Services, Tri-Dynamic Waste Management Company and Annur Cleaners.
The research also find out the criteria use by the State Environmental Protection Agency (SEPA) for selecting site to fix a legal (authorized) collection points; the population of the area are taken into consideration before fixing a solid waste collection point in an area so as to avoid underuse by fixing a multiple collection points in a very low population density area. Because it is but a waste of resource as there are likely other shareable collection points in the neighboring areas; the community leaders of the area which comprises the elders and traditional leaders are contacted by the State Environmental Protection Agency (SEPA) and then ask them to make a formal request for solid waste collection point in their area from the agency, or in some cases require that the community should make the request from their respective local government council; and the sites to be selected are/sould be owned by the government.

5.2 CONCLUSION
Based on the result obtained and the discussions in chapter four (4), it is evident that the application of GIS and GPS in solid waste management has brought up a number of lessons. First, GIS/GPS are capable in showing the spatial distribution of the solid waste collection points of urban areas; this reveals the evenness of the distribution. Secondly, in order to have an efficient solid waste management system, it is very important to know the current picture of distributional relationship of the legal and illegal collection points; as well as that of the types of the collection points. And GIS can handle such, as it is capable of integrating both spatial and non-spatial data necessary for effective solid waste collection system.
The research revealed that the distribution of the collection points is generally uneven in the study area, and yet the unevenness is less in certain locations (areas) and more in others depending on the settlement pattern and the population density of the area. The number of indiscriminate solid waste disposal increases as you move from high to low density settlement areas, while the sizes of the refuse hips increase from low to high density settlement areas. This is because the high density Areas are made up of buildings closely packed together thus providing no space for indiscriminate waste disposal all over the landscape unlike in the low-medium density settlement areas. Moreover, In addition to the settlement pattern, delegates from certain communities of the old city have been coming sporadically to request from the State Environmental Protection Agency (SEPA) that they want close down a given solid waste collection point for one or the other reason which could be proximity to utilities like road, waterway, residences, etc; or because of the bad odor among other reasons irrespective of its legality. And in most cases permission is granted. In a nutshell, there is higher number of both legal and illegal solid waste collection points in the low and medium density areas of urban Katsina compare to the high density areas. Only 12.96% of the entire solid waste collection points in Urban Katsina are legal (authorized) while the other 87.04% are illegal (unauthorized), and this scenario seriously needs the attention the respective stakeholders.
Majority of the households in Urban Katsina use pay laborers to dispose their refuse. Highest percent of the households in urban Katsina dispose their Solid Waste every day, while the fewest dispose theirs occasionally. Although most of the Solid Waste Collection Points in urban Katsina are unauthorized [647 of 741 (87.3%)] yet the community insisted that most of them dispose their refuse at authorized (legal) collection points, while the fewest dispose theirs at means other than Open Space, water channel and authorized collection point . Although most of the Solid Waste Collection Point are unauthorized [647 of 741 (87.3%)] yet most of the peolple insisted that the Refuse Management System of their area is appropriate, only 13.1% insisted that the system is very appropriate, while 8.2% admitted that the system is very inappropriate.

5.3 RECOMMENDATIONS
Based on the result obtained and the conclusions reached, the following measures are recommended for adoption by the stakeholders involved in the solid waste management for urban Katsina:

1. There is need for the use of urban information database that can be generated using remote sensing data and GIS techniques. Top priority should be given to the issues related to the planned development of the city, adequate roads and links; effective drainage system, etc.The staff of the State Environmental Protection Agency (SEPA) among other various government departments should be given thorough exposure and training of GIS for its application and implementation in the urban environmental management plans. GIS for solid waste collection needs to be institutionalized. It needs to be introduced to the Contractors, municipal and city councils officials in order to ease information management for both spatial and non-spatial data. GIS can be used as a planning tool for solid waste management. On the other hand, the spatial and non-spatial data of Urban Katsina should be updated from time to time in order to support decision making. Moreover, the Private Waste Management Agencies and other stakeholders involved in the solid waste management need to be trained in the use of GIS as a tool for planning in solid waste collection. Short courses, seminars and workshops need to be conducted to build their capacity in waste collection. The focus should be based on empowering the stakeholders about importance of information, information needs, collection, storage, analysis and use. The problems and challenges faced by mankind are of national level but it has to be dealt at the local level.
2. There is also need to carryout an extensive mapping of the Katsina Urban to show the boundries separating the locations (areas) for future detail spatial studies of the solid waste collection points in urban Katsina. Most of the Solid Waste Collection Points in urban Katsina are unauthorized [647 of 741 (87.3%)], so, there is need to legalise the legalisable ones and substitute the non-legalisable ones with others at positions suited for legal collection points. This is to say, there is need to reduce the number of the illegal (unauthorized) collection points in the low and medium population density areas, and then fix more legal (authorized) ones at the high population density areas. Moreover, the number of the evacuation fercilities (truck loaders, tippers, tractors, etc) is poor, so, the extensive mapping is capable of recommending the specific number of each evacuation fercility per given number of location (areas) base on the nature and number of the collection points in the area.
3. Finally, no municipal solid waste management can be effective without proper monitoring of its disposal activities and public enlightments.

REFERENCES

Loading…

Share with your friends
  •  
  •  
  •  
  •  
  •  
  •  
  •  
  •  

Leave a Reply

2 Comments on "SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF SOLID WASTE COLLECTION POINTS IN URBAN KATSINA, NORTHERN NIGERIA — By Lawal Auwal Sani DANBUZU"

avatar
Sort by:   newest | oldest | most voted
anonymous
Guest

husaym habeeb umar writes:This very nice msc project… Keep it up it so spcial in the hall world. Thanks sir

Nasir ahmad
Guest

pls sir hw cn i gt ur cntct

wpDiscuz