AN M.Sc LAND RESOURCE (DEVELOPMENT) RESEARCH PROPOSAL SUBMITTED TO THE DEPARTMENT OF GEOGRAPHY, BAYERO UNIVERSITY, KANO.
TABLE OF CONTENT
1.1 Background to the study problem 1
1.2 Statement of research problem 2
1.3 Justification of research 5
1.4 Aim and Objectives 5
1.5 Scope 5
2.0 Methodology 6
2.1 Research Tools 6
2.2 Method of Data Collection 6
2.3 Method of Data Analysis 7
2.4 Sampling and Sampling Size 7
3.0 Study Area 8
3.1 Location 8
3.2 Physical Condition 9
4.0 Literature Review 16
4.1.1 Concept of Solid Waste 16
4.1.2 Source and Types of Solid Waste 16
4.1.3 Sustainable Waste System 17
4.1.4 Solid Waste and Climate Change 18
4.2.1 History of GIS Application in Solid Wastes Analysis and Management 18
4.2.2 The role and Relevance of GIS in solid waste management 19
LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1.1 Map of Katsina State Showing Urban Katsina 8
Figure 1.2 Map of Katsina Urban Katsina 9 …
1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY PROBLEM
Solid waste is the term used to describe non-liquid waste materials arising from domestic, trade, commercial, agricultural, industrial activities and from public services (Aibor and Olorunda, 2006). History has it that the manipulation of the environment that produced waste may have begun with the domestication of fire (Encyclopaedia of Physical Science and Technology, 2nd ed., 1992). The amount of waste produced by human activities is increasing in most parts of the world, accompanied by problems of disposal (Microsoft Encarta Premium Encyclopedia Suite, 2004).
The volume and types of solid and hazardous waste as a result of continuous economic growth, urbanization and industrialization, is experiencing a rapid increase all over the world. It is estimated that in 2006 the total amount of municipal solid waste (MSW) generated globally reached 2.02 billion tones, representing a 7% annual increase since 2003. It is further estimated that between 2007 and 2011, global generation of municipal waste will rise by 37.3%, equivalent to roughly 8% increase per year. Based on incomplete reports from its participants, The Basel Convention estimated that about 318and 338 million tons of hazardous and other wastes were generated for 2000 and 2001 respectively (Global Waste Management Market Report 2007).
According to Solomon (2009), it is estimated that an average Nigerian generates about 0.49kg of solid waste per day with households and commercial centers contributing almost 90% of total urban waste burden. Little information exists on industrial, agricultural and biomedical waste profiles. As with most developing countries, a greater percentage of solid waste composed of organic matter, but recently there has been a marked increased in the amount of plastic wastes generated in Nigeria.
Until recently, Nigerians had not been concerned with solid waste disposal; there concern had not gone beyond physical removal of waste from the streets. It has been a common practice to dispose off refuse by the expedite method available. Such methods might be by open burning or the use of an open dump. But with an increasing population and rapid urbanization, solid waste is piling up faster than finding satisfactory places to put them (Ajibade, 2007; Sada and Odemerho, 1988).
A study in Nigeria showed that municipal solid wastes are produced in the urban areas at a mean rate of 0.43 kg/head/day (Sridhar et al., 1989). This is evident as it is not uncommon going through the length and breadth of the country (Nigeria) to find heaps of refuse littering the entire landscape, road sides and commercial centres, even on the premises of primary, secondary and tertiary institutions as a result of improper management strategies (Onibokun, Adedipe and Sridhar, 2000).
The wastes of the early people were mostly food scraps and other less harmful substances that broke down easily by natural decay processes. Pre-historic populations were also much smaller and were spread over larger areas and as a result, people were less concentrated in one place and caused fewer problems. In Nigeria just like in the rest of the world, rapid urbanisation and population growth have brought about a proportional increase in the amount of waste that is generated. The inability to manage these wastes effectively in most developing and some developed countries becomes an issue of great concern because apart from the destruction of aesthetics of landscape by the waste dumpsites, some of the municipal solid wastes contain both organic and inorganic toxic pollutants (such as heavy metals) that threaten the health of humans and the entire ecosystem (Sridhar et al., 1989 and Sridhar et al., 1985).
Composition of municipal solid waste provides a description of the constituents of the wastes and it differs widely from place to place. The most striking difference is the difference in organic content which is much higher in the low income areas than the high income areas. This reflects the difference in consumption pattern, cultural and educational differences. In higher income areas, disposable materials and packaged food are used at higher quantities; this result in the waste having a higher calorific value, lower specific density and lower moisture content. In the case of lower income areas, the usage of fresh vegetable to packaged food is much higher. This result in a waste composition that has high moisture content, high specific weight and low calorific value (Klundert, Vande Aschutz and Scheinberg, 2001 and Dhussa et al., 2000).
Waste management is a global environmental issue; solid waste management in urban areas is one of major problems facing city planners all over the world. The problem is especially severe in most developing countries where increased urbanization, poor planning and lack of adequate resources contribute to the poor state of municipal solid waste management (Obirih,-Operah, and Post, 2002; Mato, 1999; Doan, 1998; Mwanthl et al, 1997). Proper management of solid waste is critical to the health and well being of urban residents (World Bank, 2003). Solid waste management according to Ibrahim (2002) is the scientific way or established procedure and sanctioned legislation for the collection, transportation and disposal of waste products which is economically feasible and environmentally viable. Warnless (2009) noted that waste management differs for developed and developing nations, urban and rural areas, for residential and industrial producers.
1.2 STATEMENT OF RESEARCH PROBLEM
In Africa, rapid urban growth since the 1960s has put pressure on the land resources within the area surrounding the cities, and this has led to increased generation of waste. The problem is aggravated by the open dump nature of disposing waste especially in the slum areas of most African cities (Mato, 1999; Hammer, 2003). Pelczar et al. (1993) asserted that, careless and illegal dumping of solid waste has led to the problem of polluting the land as well as the near-by water bodies to serve both irrigation and domestic needs. Pollution of water could aid the transmission of water-borne infections such as typhoid, cholera, gastro enteritis among others. Similarly, polluting the land can aid the spread of food-borne diseases like salmonellas, etc. Moreover, uncontrolled solid waste disposal can also cause environmental problems like traffic congestion on the streets and roads, municipal floods when dumped on waterways, etc.
There are many drawbacks in the existing Waste Management System. For example, distribution and allocation of waste bins at improper location, no separate bins for recyclable waste, pollution of natural water streams due to waste collection centers proximity and open nature (Nair, 2010).
Hauwa (2003) opined that heaps of solid waste continue to emerge in Nigerian cities on daily basis and the site have become fertile ground for breeding flies and other vectors which have in effect became health hazards, obstructing traffic flow causing environmental degradation and general unsightliness. This problem of refuse disposal is basically a feature of rapid urbanization, which in Nigeria is still in its infancy. Another point is the location problem, most of the collection centers are not well planned, and this leads to introduction of illegal collection points.
Urban Katsina, the study area being a state capital of Katsina State has been experiencing a population growth, since the creation of the state in 1987. As such there is increase in residential, commercial, industrial and institutional land uses leading to urban expansion. The simultaneous increase in population and settlement expansion of Urban Katsina has a direct effect on the increase in solid waste generation (Katsina Waste Management and Pollution Control, 2004; and Tajuddin, 2003).
The Katsina Waste Management and Pollution Control (2004) added that 80% of waste generation in Katsina Metropolis is from household, then commercial, institutional, construction and demolition wastes account for 15%. Proliferation of illegal waste collection sites and indiscriminate dumping of refuse at any available space has now become a common scene (Zakariya’u, 2010).
The Katsina State Department of Waste Management and Pollution Control (2004) listed the following solid wastes´ problems:
a. A lot of undesignated refuse dumps have been created especially on our main roads, making the area clumsy and create an eyesore. And improper waste disposal is another issue of concern and should also be addressed.
b. Our drainages, gutters and other water passages were turn to be refuse collection centers thus causing flood during the rainy season and a vectors breading places sometimes lead to unpleasant odor due to stagnant of the water.
c. Lack of waste recycling factory in the state is also another factor contributing inappropriate managing and disposal of waste.
d. Some of these refuse centers were also turned to be a public toilets or carcass disposing area thus polluting the environment.
e. Incomplete and abandoned structures and vehicles are also other key areas of focus, since they are serve as refuse centers apart from being a hide out for culprits thus threatening the life and environment of the general public.
However, most of the above listed problems are in one way or the other related to poor allocation and distribution of solid waste collection points. Katsina Waste Management and Pollution Control (2004) confirm that there is no map available showing the distribution of both the legal and illegal waste collection points in Urban Katsina. Thus the waste evacuation is done randomly. Furthermore, drainage blockages which resulted in floods during occasional heavy down pour. Effective flow of traffic is also hampered as a result of these solid wastes being dumped in discriminately along major Streets.
1.3 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1. What is the relationship between spatial distribution of solid waste collection points and land uses in urban Katsina?
2. What is relationship between type of solid waste collection points and land uses in urban Katsina?
3. What is the relationship between solid waste composition and land uses in urban Katsina?
1.4 AIM AND OBJECTIVES
The main aim of the study is to analyze the spatial distribution solid waste collection points and examine the solid waste composition in Urban Katsina.
To determine the spatial distribution of the waste collection points in Urban Katsina
To examine the type and legality of the waste collection points in Urban Katsina
To examine the composition of the solid waste in Urban Katsina
1.5 JUSTIFICATION OF RESEARCH
There is an increasing commercial, residential and infrastructural development due to the population growth and urban expansion and this directly affect the amount of waste generation and disposal. Thus, it is of vital importance to study the solid waste characteristics as well as the spatial distribution of the collection points for both planning and management purposes. Poor distribution of solid waste collection points leads to a number of problems including indiscriminate waste disposal, this habit causes municipal flooding, traffic congestion and sometimes unpleasant odor due to water stagnant and proximity to human activities. GPS and ArchView GIS can be used show and analyze the problem of distribution. This will reduce the time and enhances accuracy.
The solid waste characteristics specifically the composition gives a clue to both planners and managers. It is needed for planning purposes such as bioenergy production, and management purposes such as waste recycling.
The spatial scope of the study concerns only Urban Katsina: this comprises the urban area of Katsina Local government and some part of Batagarawa local Government.
In terms of depth of investigation, the research is restricted to the spatial distribution of the solid wastes collection points in terms of their geographical location, type and legality; and solid waste composition in relation to various land uses.
H0: There is no significant relationship between land-uses and compositions
H1: There is significant relationship between land-uses and compositions
2.1 Research tools
These include: Global Positioning System (GPS), spring balance, shovel, polythene sack, digital camera, calculator, field note, laptop and GIS software (ArcView GIS 3.2a).
2.2 Method of data collection
The research data will be gathered through pre-field work and detailed field survey. And it consists of both primary and secondary data gathering techniques.
2.2.1 Pre-Field Work:
The pre-field work starts with review of literature from related journals, records from the respective government agencies — principally the State Environmental Protection Agency (SEPA) and Katsina State Urban planning Development Authority (KUPDA). Other sources include internet and textbooks.
The list and adresses of the collection points, and other records will be collected from the State Environmental Protection Agency (SEPA), and then a preliminary reconnaissance to the collection points with respect to the various land uses for verification and familiarization. These will serve as guide to classify legal and illegal collection points.
2.2.2 Detailed Field Survey:
GPS will be used to take the co-ordinates of the waste collection points. The composition of the solid waste will be measured in the field. Database will be created to record the coordinates, address, composition and area’s major land use type of the collection points.
As for the composition, 25Kg of each sampled collection point will be measured using spring balance, spread on the floor and disintegrate into different categories, and then measure the mass of each category.
2.3 Samples and Sampling Size
Ten percent (10%) of waste collection points will be sampled using stratified random sampling method. The land uses will be taken as the strata. 25 Kilograms (Kg) of solid waste will be used to deduce the waste composition at sampled collection points.
2.4 Method of data analysis
GIS software, ArcView GIS 3.2a will be used to analyze the coordinates of solid waste collection points taken during the field work. Points (dots) will be used to show the solid waste collection points; the legality of collection points will be shown using different symbol (points). The composition will be analyzed in relation to the various land-uses in the study area. Use of tables, pie chart and bar chart is also going to be employed for the data analyses and presentation.
Both descriptive and Inferential Statistical techniques will be employed in the data analysis. The descriptive statistics concerns the measures of central tendencies. The inferential statistics specifically the Chi-Square will be used to test significant relationship between land-uses and compositions.
3.0 STUDY AREA
Urban Katsina is the capital of Katsina state; it is located between latitude 120 451N and130 151N, and Longitude 70 301 and 80 00E (fig 1.2). The location is at the extreme part of Northern Nigeria, some 30Km from the Nigeria-Niger border. The town and its immediate environs form the present study area. The city is administratively headed by an emir, with districts and ward as sub units for administrative convenience. Urban Katsina comprises of two Local Government Areas, i.e. Katsina and some parts of Batagarawa Local Government Areas (Zayyana, 2010).
The historical importance of Katsina, together with its strategic location in Northern Nigeria had greatly contributed to its rapid population growth rate. The 2006 population census recorded population of the town (i.e. two LGAs in the town) at 507,191. In recent times, the population has mainly drawn to the town as a result of increased employment opportunities, following the establishment of many more governmental and private departments. The impact of several educational institutions in building the population is particularly remarkable.
The main ethnic groups are the Hausa and Fulani. The Fulani are primarily settled or semi-settled cattle-herders, with some limited crop production activities. The Hausa are largely crop cultivators, but who also often keep some animals. A History of association and interaction between the two ethnic groups has led to merger of culture and tradition, mainly through the unifying influence of Islam, the Hausa language and inter-marriages. In addition, other ethnic groups with lower, but still significant importance in Katsina town’s social and economic development include Igbo, Yoruba, Nupe, Kanuri, Tiv and others (ibid).
3.2 Physical Conditions
The pool of rainfall data for Katsina shows that the climate is humid tropical, characterized by a relatively long dry season and somewhat smaller seasons. The rainfall, and indeed throughout West Africa, depend upon the interaction of the warm moist Tropical maritime air mass and the hot and dry tropical Continental air mass. The two air masses met along the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) which moves in response to the seasonal disposition of the overhead sun. Rainfall amounts are generally related to the thickness of the Tropical Maritime air mass. The tropical Maritime air mass is wedge-shaped and thins northwards. Consequently, when the ITCZ moves northwards over the study area in May, rainfall becomes progressively heavier and more steady, reaching its peak at about August. In September, as the ITCZ moves southwards, rainfall becomes lighter and sporadic.
The rainfall is concentrated in the months of July, August and September, with figures generally from 700 to 800mm annually. Despite this however, rains have been noted to start from the month of May and June of each year with very limited intensity and duration. Similarly, monthly total, or annual total, can vary considerably. The pattern shows a very strong seasonal cycle, the large variability from year to year, and periods of relatively high and relatively low rainfall. The period from 1926 to 1965 was one of the relatively wet spell while the period from 1966 to 1997 was one of the dry spell, and period from 1998 to 2007 a wet spell again.
The low total amount and sporadic nature of rainfall often results in such problems as excessive or early inundation or desiccation of Fadama, middle-season water stress, multiple seed planting, etc. The mean monthly dry season temperatures are above 300C, but significantly drop in the harmattan periods which stretch from November to February when the dry North East trade winds prevail. During this period, the ambient air mass is very dry and cold, dusty during the day and chilly dry at night. During this period, nigh temperatures can drop as low as between 18 and 210C, resulting in a relatively high diurnal range of temperature. In the rainy season month of July and September, temperatures of about 22 to 280C prevail. Four distinct seasons are experienced in the area, these are: dry and cool, dry and hot, wet and warm and dry and warm seasons respectively.
Relative humidity in Katsina and its environs never exceed 20-25%, the highest humidity in the area occurs in the months of August and September, while the lowest occur in the months of February and March (Zayyana, 2010).
The continental sediments of Katsina plains of feldspatic clayey sandstones and grits with small basal pebble beds. The sediments have maximum thickness of about 100m and the regional dip is to the north-west. The sediments thin to the south and, in places, only the pebble beds remain on the higher interfluves. The southern boundary is diffuse and outliners are frequent, south of the main body. The sediments have been equated with the Gundumi formation of the Lullummenden Basin and are therefore mid cretaceous in age (Ologe, 1985).
Alluvial deposits are associated with the present valleys. The older alluvium, which is partly colluvial in origin, forms a valley fill and may be contemporaneous with a high terrace found along Ginzo River. Aeolian deposits overlie the older alluvium. The Aeolian mantle lacks definite pattern and also shows a marked variation in thickness. The younger alluvium occurs along the Tille River within the present floodplain. Recent alluvium deposits are associated with the present floodplain of the major rivers in the area (ibid).
The Landforms reflects the sedimentary rock formation of the area. The landscape is relatively flat, almost featureless, typically less than two degrees, and of about 510m at the Katsina city center (MLSK, 2008). The plain is underlain by clayey sandstones and grits with small basal pebble. Rock-out crops are generally absent, other than into the small inliers of Basement complex. Laterite capping only occur frequently and drainage texture is considerably much coarser than on basement complex plains further south of the area (Zayyana, 2010).
(d) Hydrology, Hydrogeology and Water Resource
The main river draining the town is River Ginzo, which passes through the town and move northwards. Drainage pattern of the area is dendritic to sub-parallel and northward in direction, with widely space drainage lines. Stream flow in the area strongly reflects the climatic environment and, in particular, the season and torrential nature of the rainfall. Thus, three main types of stream flow pattern have been recognized in the area;
1. Perennial flows: Low dry season discharges with flash floods superimposed on high rainy season discharges. This flow pattern occurs on the largest river i.e. Ginzo and major tributaries.
2. Seasonal flow: Zero dry season flow, flash floods superimposed on rainy season flow which may be high or low depending on catchments area. The river along which Tille is located to this category
3. Flash flow only i.e., there is flowing water in the stream channel only during and for a short while after run-off producing storms.
The alluvial sediments in the flood plains, which range from gravels to clay with coarser material along present and old river beds, become saturated during the rainy season and may drain away along the river course during the dry season or, become dammed by impervious rock or clay barriers.
Water in local wells tapping aquifers is usually at a depth of between 25 to 45m, and residents draw water from such deep wells throughout the year. However, farmers and pastoralists alike frequently make shallow wells along the bed of Ginzo river tributary straddling the area, to 5m, and obtain water from this depth at least into late January. The nature and amount of the water supply, together with availability of grazing resources, dictate the movement of cattle, goat and sheep in the area (Zayyana, 2010).
Soils in the area, as elsewhere in Nigeria, represent an interface between intensive chemical weathering of rocks, and an active and intermittent surface and subsurface denudation system, fuelled by intensive rainfall and rapid runoff. The properties of the soils, therefore, represent complex interrelationships between intensity of weathering and rate of lateral and vertical eluviations of materials, which are in turn related to lithology, topography, climate, vegetation and other environmental controls (MLSK, 2008).
The soil of the study area fall under tropical ferruginous soils and weakly developed alluvial soils of the major streams.
(i) Tropical ferruginous soils (Alfisols)
This soil is called Alfisols according to USDA soil taxonomy or Luvisols based on FAO/UNESCO soil taxonomy. Most soils over the study area belong to this category. The exact character of the soils is dependent on such factors as topographical relation, and anthropogenic modification. The color ranges from dark grey or grayish brown in the top soil to yellowish red or yellowish brown in the subsoil, rarely becoming reddish yellow. The soil is not mottled at the top 1.5m, but sometimes mottled at depth below that otherwise passes to white sand. In terms of consistency, the top horizons are loose, even when slightly moist (MLSK, 2008). They are friable when moist and non-sticky and non-plastic when wet. The top soil develops a weak crumb structure and the lower horizons a weak or moderate sub angular blocky structure. The soils are moderately porous, with common to many, fine to medium pores in the upper horizons; these extending down into the subsoil. They are well drained over most of the year, although the presence of reddish mottles, especially in the lower horizons, suggests that many do become saturated at depth for at least brief period (ibid).
(ii) Weakly developed alluvial soils (Hydromorphic soil)
This category includes juvenile soils with A and C horizons developed from recently deposited materials, most especially from riverine and lacustrine alluvium. The absence of well-developed horizons is mainly due to the brevity of the soil forming period. The parent materials of these soils, whose deposition is still proceeding, are characterized by a great heterogeneity. They differ not only from one spot to another, but also from flood to flood as reflected by the stratifications in the profile. Moreover, the age of the deposits is not the same throughout a given alluvial zone (MLSK, 2008).
These soils are found on recent sediments of varying ongm, or older Aeolian sediments which have either been redistributed by erosion or which have evolved under a semi-arid climate and show no characteristics of the ferruginous tropical features associated with seasonal water logging so that many have hydromorphic tendencies and grade into major soil group.
Lying within the Northern Sudan savanna, the vegetation is dominated by fine-leaved Acacia spp. and their associates. These trees include Adonsonia digitata, Parkia bigloboza, Anogeissum leiocarpus, Afrormosia laxiflora, Bombax costatum, Boswellia dalzielii, Burkea africana etc. The common shrub and shrubby species include Annona senegalensis, Bridelia ferruginea, Gardenia spp, Grewia mollis, Hymenocardia acida, Lannea kerstingii, May tenus senegalensis, Nauclea latifolia, Pillostigma thonningii etc.
The trees characteristically grow long tap roots and thick barks both of which make it possible for them to withstand the long dry season and bush fires. The grass cover is mostly perennial, with durable roots, which remain underground after stalks are burnt away or wilted in the dry season only to germinate with the first rains. The precise and mixture of the various species is determined by such factors as soil type, moisture conditions, and the degree of human disturbance. The main physiographic communities encountered in order of importance are: cultivated parkland, shrub savanna and floodplain grassland. This biodiversity has been strongly modified as a result of urban expansion and construction (MLSK, 2008).
(g) Land Uses
Land use in the study area is dominated by urban activities, such as residential, institutional, commercial and industrial land uses, with small area mostly undeveloped for farming. Aside from major urban land uses mentioned above, other land uses such as livestock production and gathering are also carried out in the area.
Residential area cover most part of the study area, different land uses such as commercial, institutional, and educational are all located within the residential areas. Sabuwar Unguwa extension is the major area functioning as industrial layout. Industries such as steel rolling, packaging, beverages processing etc are found in this area.
Commercial activities happened to be growing very fast in the area. There are many smalls and one major central market. The popular markets here are Katsina central market, Kofar Marusa market and old market. Also there are many departmental stores, shopping centers and supermarkets- where local, national and foreign commodities are sold.
Institutional land uses can be found at various locations within urban Katsina. Tertiary institutions include Umaru Musa Yar'adua University, Federal College of Education, Hassan Usman Katsina Polytechnic, and School of Nursing and Midwifery in addition to numerous nursery/primary and secondary schools both governmental and privately owned.
Agricultural activities are confined to open spaces within the built-up areas and at suburb, and on the stretches of flood plains and the little floodable plains of the little floodable part of the low terrace depressions that retains water in the area and other undeveloped lands within the area and other extensive areas just outside the city. The most common market gardening crops grown are Okra, Cabbage; Spinach etc Perennial crops and fruits.
The area also supports large number of cattle, sheep and goats. All livestock in the area graze on natural pastures and shrubs for their nutritional needs, and supplementary feeding from the owners.
Gathering of non timber forest products (NTFPs) form a small but important part of human activities in the area. Such items provide subsistence goods and services, as well as items of trade. Throughout the area, plant medicines are used for both curative and preventive treatments.
Fuel wood constitutes the main energy source for cooking. Besides, gathering processing and trading of the products provides a good source of supplementary income to many households in the area (Zayyana, 2010).
4.0 LITERATURE REVIEW
4.1 Concept of Solid Waste
Solid waste is the term used to describe non-liquid waste materials arising from domestic, trade, commercial, agricultural, industrial activities and from public services. Waste management is a global environmental issue which concerns about a very significant problem in today’s world (ERSI, 2001).
But, according to Ibrahim (2002) solid wastes are categorized into three (3) types base on the composition. These are: Biodegradable mainly composed of garbage trash; semi-biodegradable, this consists of rubbish; and non-biodegradable that comprises scraps and other carcasses. Aibor and Olorunda (2006) generalized solid wastes into Domestic and Estate solid wastes. The domestic solid wastes are those generated directly from households. These include garbage, rubbish, ashes, house sweepings, other domestic bulky wastes, etc. While the estate solid wastes are those generated in larger quantities and are mostly from industrial establishments, hospital wastes, municipal wastes, agricultural wastes, site demolition and construction activities, etc.
4.2 Municipal Solid Waste Composition
Municipal solid waste composition varies from one area to another according to income level, population, density and predominant activities (residential, commercial, industrial, etc.). Changes in solid waste composition occur seasonally as a result of seasonal changes in food consumption. Changes in lifestyle and increasing dependence on processed food and associated plastic packaging continuously alter the solid waste composition (Environmental Quality International, 2005). Waste creation by mankind is inevitable as far as the manipulation of the environment continues. The worry by environmentalists is the quantity and toxic level posed by the wastes produced. Waste has always been created by mankind since the prehistoric times (Udoessien, 1998).
Municipal solid waste in Nigeria are composed mainly of paper, food scraps, vegetable matter, plastics, metals, textiles, rubber, and glass (Uba, 2008; Amusan, 2005 and Cointreau, 1982). The big challenge with solid waste management in major Nigerian cities is not only the volume of the wastes, but also the composition of the wastes. All categories of wastes including toxic or non-toxic, biodegradable or non-biodegradable, recyclable or non-recyclable are dumped together making their management very difficult. The reason(s) for this attitudinal occurrence in developing countries may not be farfetched. It could be as a result of lack of awareness, poverty, population growth, and high urbanisation rates combine with lack of governments’ policies on waste management issues especially on waste management and separation. In places where there are governments’ policies, the agencies saddled with the mandate to enforce the policies are either under funded by the governments or are not monitored for efficiency (Cointreau, 1982 and Doan, 1998).
4.3 Solid Waste and Climate Change
During the late 1980s, scientists began warning the public that carbon dioxide (Co2) methane and other greenhouse gases were accumulated in the atmosphere in sufficient quantities to pose a threat to the stability of global climates. Researchers speculated that a buildup greenhouse gases could lead to worldwide warming in the 21st century. The new threat focused the attention of waste management professional on landfills. Landfills generate methane, typically for decades, and release the gas gradually into the atmosphere. Many larger landfills and a fewer smaller ones recover landfills gas once a landfill has a collection of system in place, it can reduce up to 75% of gas generated; but fewer than 5% of landfills have collection systems (Philips, 1998).
4.4 Solid Waste Reuse and Recycle in Nigeria
Though, waste problem has not been pronounced for long in the less developed countries like Nigeria. It is known that there have been some local methods by which solid wastes were been reused or recycled. The knowledge of waste recycling and reuse is not a new one in the Nigerian context rather, it is the current sophistication involve that is rather new, waste facilities in developing countries are minimal, but substantial quality are diverted for recycling (Tajuddeen, 2003).
It was a taboo to waste anything that cost money in Nigeria. So there was these reuse culture that have been planted in to Nigerians indigenously. Every item used were structured for reuse. Even today, the sachets of hawked pure water are used by horticulturalist for flower nursery and paper wrappers are reused. The reuse tradition is what makes old newspapers useful for wrapping roasted groundnut ( Arachis hypogea Linn) and pop corn (guguru) or akara, the popular fried bean cake. Apart from the fact that the reuse culture saves lots of money, it is highly conservative resulting in waste management. USA uses 18 billion disposable diapers each year and they all end up in landfills where they remain for entombed for centuries, which is less in Nigeria due to the fact that reusable cloth diapers are mostly used (Ajibade et al., 2005)
4.5 Sustainable Wastes Management
The notion of sustainable waste management has come to mean different things to different stakeholders with different environmental, economic and societal considerations given greater or lesser prominence. For example, for some it can simply mean the sustainable management of leachate and landfill gas is returned to the environment in environmentally accepted fashion (Bruce, 1998). For others, such as Tammemagi (1999), it means protecting health and the environment; minimizing the burden of future generations has been critique for not fully addressing the economic requirement of sustainability (Chung and Ho, 2003). Still others argue that interpretation of sustainable waste management systems should be expanded to include participation for all stakeholders (Petts, 2000; OECD, 2002), and in particular between localities (Furedy, 1990).
The Rio Declaration on sustainable development (UNCED, 1992) defined sustainable waste management as the application of the integrated life cycle management concept in waste management. This was later elaborated by the United Nations (2005) as:
“Environmentally sound waste management must go beyond the mere safe disposal or recovery of wastes that are generated and seek to address the root cause of the problem by attempting to change unsustainable patterns of production and consumption”.
In effect, the Declaration suggests an approach to waste management that incorporates environmental, social and economic perspective into environmental policy, planning and practice. However, it is only recently that waste management policies, plans and programmes have begun to consider all of these different stands of sustainability. As Nilson-Djerf and McDonald (2000) argue for a waste management system to be sustainable, it needs to be environmentally effective, economically affordable and socially acceptable.
4.6 Methods of Refuse Disposal
Tajuddeen (2003) reviewed that before any method can be adopted for appropriate disposal of refuse, the following has to be considered:
(a) Refuse Generation
(b) Refuse Storage
(c) Refuse Collection and Transportation
According to him, there are many methods of refuse disposal techniques which are teamed up under four main groups namely:-
Controlled tipping method
1. Burial Method:- Under this method, refuse is literarily buried, unwanted materials like broken bottles, potsherds or sanitary landfill composting is also associated with burying. This method has impact seriously on the health of man himself. For instance, nobody would like to have refuse-burial site within his vicinity because of the harmful effect they generate. After the burial of organic matter, there may be leachate that often pollutes the aquifers, wells and boreholes.
Hole dug in that premises will definitely not produce portable water for human consumption. It is a common knowledge that organic matter generates heat when buried, thereby causing the production of methane known as biogas. If methane could penetrate further away from the source, it is capable of killing vegetations, which may hamper agricultural activities which also have far reaching effects on man.
2. Burning (Incineration) Method:- it has been argued that an average Nigerian produces about 0.45 gram per day to refuse, the composition and quality of the refuse vanes depending on factors guiding refuse disposal as mentioned earlier. The major component is organic matter, which account for 60 – 80% of the total waste.
Incineration is a common method of disposing refuse; it has its short comings because it is not an end point itself, but nearly a means to an end. Incineration is attained by setting the refuse ablaze. Fire is formed by combination of light heat and oxygen. At this point, we can say incineration is the destruction of combustible refuse using direct flame, plus oxygen and the re use reduced to one fifth of its original volume. Its operation may then be said to be either open or close incineration.
3. Controlled Tippin (Sanitary Landfill):- Sanitary land fill is an engineered method of disposing solid waste on land by spreading it in thin layers, compacting them to the smallest particle volume and covering it with soil each working day, in a manner that the environment is protected.
Sanitary landfill is the most efficient system of refuse disposal because in this case, there is no residue and a useless piece of land becomes useful.
4. Recycling method:- They are simultaneously used to refer to the recovery of certain solid waste components for refuse. Other residues of pulverization, composting and incineration can be said to have been recycled or salvaged if the residues are used for one or other purpose.
Components that are more amendable to recovery are those for which market exists and which are present in the waste in sufficient quantity to justify their separation. Materials that have been recovered from solid waste include paper, cardboard, plastic, glass, ferrous metals, aluminum and other residual non¬ferrous metal. Certain industries involve in utilizing waste are paper mill and cardboard factories, steel rolling mills, aluminum industries and plastic industries
4.7 Factors Influencing the Choice of Refuse Disposal Method
Tajuddeen (2003) reported that, there are some factors which influence the choice of the method to be adopted in refuse disposal, these include:-
1. The physical characteristics of the locality Availability of land for the disposal method.
2. The character, quality and quantity of waste to be disposed
Refuse quantity and nature varies greatly from region to region.
3. Financial capability of the municipality: Refuse vehicles are very expensive and not easy to manage. Paradoxically, man is the generator of all other forms of waste but he is incapable of .getting rid of the massive waste. The reason is that all the so called methods of refuse disposal are not efficiently sort out because; they will solve one problem to create another.
Tajuddeen (2003) described waste as useless, disused or unused materials and that if not properly handled, may be dangerous to the health of man.
Therefore cause for eradication in the modern concept, is the tendency to recycle waste materials apart from serving economic purpose. What is regarded as waste by certain group may be a raw material to another group.
4.8 An Empirical Overview Solid Waste Generation, collection and Disposal
According to USEPA (2009), the United State generated 250 million tons of waste in 2008 alone, and this figure continues to rise. About 54% of this trash ends up in landfills and is consuming land at a rate of 3,500 acres per year. In fact land filling is currently the number one method of waste disposal in the united state.
In India, Khalil (2009) reported the case of Aligarh city’s solid waste management. He noted that poor budgetary allocation from the part of the state government is the major constraint that limited the capacity of Aligarh city’s corporation from covering the entire city in the provision of solid waste management services. He concluded that the city produces 3500 tonnes of solid waste at a rate of 0.5Kg per day.
Zakariya’u, (2010) reported that Kundu (undated) studied the solid waste management in Dhaka city (Bangladesh). He observed that the city generates about 3,500 tonnes of solid waste. The municipal agency collects only half of the waste. He noted that as a result of adoption of community based approach, people became more reluctant to dump their rubbish on the streets and the residents actively discourage any careless dumping. He concluded that converting household waste into compost reduces the volume of waste generated in Dhaka city.
Christopher (2008) maintained that the collection and disposal of municipal solid waste in Nigeria often involves informal sector; unregistered businesses, socially disadvantaged people, poor individuals, squatters or migrants from rural areas who are outside the social safety net. This is consistent with the findings of Adekiya (2005) that Alabaru (socially disadvantaged people) are actively involved in the collection and disposal of Bodija market solid waste.
Nabegu (2006) observed that only 20% of the estimated waste generated in Kano metropolis is being evacuated by the public waste collection agency in the city. He went further to identify access ways, insufficient funds, inadequate manpower and poor sanitation habits from the part of the residents where the major factors that hampered the smooth operation of the public waste collection agency in the city.
Stare (2009) conducted a research on the decentralization of public service provision with emphasis to solid waste management in Zaria city. She noted that the entire household’s collection and disposal is being carried out by informal sector with near complete absence of both public and private sector. She concluded that the provision of such services in Zaria city is far from being adequate.
Zakariya”u (2006) studied the problems of solid waste management in Funtua market, Katsina State. His findings indicate that small children were solely responsible for the collection and disposal of the waste in the market. He concluded that the public waste collection agency in the study area was virtually doing nothing. While In Katsina Metropolis, Tajuddeen (2003) observed that there is no adequate enlightenment campaign on the dangers posed by indiscriminate waste disposal by the authorities to the inhabitants. This results to environmental hazards and outbreak of epidemics.
4.9 The Role and Relevance of GIS in Solid Waste Management and Analysis
Technological development in computer science has introduced geographic information (GIS) as an innovative tool in solid waste management including landfill process (Kontos et al, 2003). GIS combines spatial data (maps, aerial photographs. Satellite images, etc.) with non spatial data including both quantitative and qualitative data.
The role of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) in solid waste management is very large as many aspects of its planning and operations are highly dependent on spatial data. In general, GIS plays a key role in maintaining account data to facilitate collection operations; customer service; analyzing optimal locations for transfer stations; planning routes for vehicles transporting waste from residential, commercial and industrial customers to transfer stations and from transfer stations to landfills; locating new landfills and monitoring the landfill. GIS is a tool that not only reduces time and cost of the site selection, but also provide a digital data bank for future monitoring program of the site.
It has taken an initiative to setup a GIS like ArcInfo and ArcView as key components for managing its information (Keir, 1997).
Technological development in computer science has introduced geographic information (GIS) as an innovative tool in landfill.
The trend towards desk top GIS has been increasing significantly in the last few years (Lee, 1997). This is mainly due to the increase in the PC capabilities and reduction in cost. This trend has compelled GIS software vendors to redesign their strategy to suit the situation. For example, ESRI has release ArcInfo NT as a substitute to ArcInfo for workstation and a similar case has been adopted by many other GIS software vendors such as SmallWorld and GenaSys.
According to a study carried out Yagoub and Buyong (1998), the user interface built using ArcView GIS is mainly due to the following reasons:
• Low cost desktop GIS.
• Customization is based on Object Oriented (OO) language using Avenue.
• Supports Inter-Application Communication (IAC) with other applications through Dynamic Data Exchange (DDE, Dynamic Link Library (DLL), and Remote Procedure Control(RPC).
• Supports Client/Server DBMS access anywhere on a network (dBase, SQL).
• Supports integration of different data sets such as CAD, Shape files, ArcInfo coverage, multimedia image, and link real-time events such as GPS.
• Supports internet applications using ArcView Internet Map Server and Map Objects.
• Its extensions such as Spatial Analyst, Network Analyst, and 3D module are vital for future monitoring of the dumping site.
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