AN APPRISAL OF KANO RIVER IRRIGATION PROJECT, NORTHERN NIGERIA

1.0 PROBLEM STATEMENT
The inability of project implementation to match the design in Nigeria has led to a number of abandoned or poorly performing projects in the country. Project in Nigeria fail because of the poor projects design in some cases, also the poor maintenance culture that militates against proper implementation and management of the projects. This culture makes project managers assume, wrongly, that the projects can run on their own once they are commissioned. It is a direct result of the absence of proper project monitoring and post – implementation evaluation. Others factors that cause Nigerian Land projects to achieve partially sometimes after they are modified or even to became a total failure include : Low level of technology, low financial capacity, continued dependency on and consequent dictations from external forces; and inadequate and often inaccurate information and required database poor ethnical behaviour is another negative factor to the project implementation. …

1.0 PROBLEM STATEMENT
The inability of project implementation to match the design in Nigeria has led to a number of abandoned or poorly performing projects in the country. Project in Nigeria fail because of the poor projects design in some cases, also the poor maintenance culture that militates against proper implementation and management of the projects. This culture makes project managers assume, wrongly, that the projects can run on their own once they are commissioned. It is a direct result of the absence of proper project monitoring and post – implementation evaluation. Others factors that cause Nigerian Land projects to achieve partially sometimes after they are modified or even to became a total failure include : Low level of technology, low financial capacity, continued dependency on and consequent dictations from external forces; and inadequate and often inaccurate information and required database poor ethnical behaviour is another negative factor to the project implementation.

1.1 AIM AND OBJECTIVES
1.1.1 AIM
The aim of the trip is to appraise the Kano River Irrigation Project (KRIP), a project under the custody of Hadejia – Jama’are River Basin Development Authority (HJRBDA)

1.1.2 OBJECTIVES
Objectives are the means of achieving the aim, hence the objectives are:-
* To study the design, objectives, and implementation strategies of the project, including the need for design modification, if any.
* To identify enabling and disabling factors in matching the implementation of the project with its design and objectives
* To assess the performance of the project in totalit

1.2 METHODOLOGY
The method adopted for the study/appraisal was carried out in three (3) stages as follows:

1. PRE-FIELD STUDIES;- This is the first stage of the studies here a discussion was held between the students and a spokesman of the Hadejia – Jama’are River Basin Development Authority (HJRBDA) where the general overview of the Kano River Irrigation Project (KRIP) was analyzed. And this serves as guide to the field trip and studies.

2. FIELD STUDIES:-This is the second and the most tedious stage of the studies. Here, the students carried out a field survey under the guidance of the Hadejia – Jama’are River Basin Development Authority (HJRBDA) official at the visited Kano River Irrigation Project (KRIP) Phase I project area. They key places visited were:
* Tiga Dam
* The Ruwan Kanya Reservoir
* Some Night Storage Reservoirs.
* Some Parts of the (Irrigated) farmlands.
There was neither quantitative measurement carried out in the field nor casual interviews. Therefore, all the data gathered were either partially or fully processed. Thus, I decided to call it information.

3. POST FIELD STUDIE: – This is the third and the final stage of the studies. Here, the information gathered in the field was analyzed, secondary information was gathered through literature review in the library and on the interrupt and finally all the information were integrated, arranged and presented in the final report writing.

1.3 THE PROJECT AREA
The (Functioning) Kano River Irrigation Project (KRIP) , phase 1, lies between latitude 11045` and 12005` North of the equator and longitude 08045` and 09005` East of the green which mean. It is located at a vast area over 25Km south of Kano city and it is essentially most of irrigable land both sides of the Kano Zaria highway and on both sides of the Karfi – Rano highway. It is a scheme to provide irrigation facilities for about 22,000 hectres of land utilizing the Tiga Dam Reservoir (Shariff, 2009).

2.0 DISCUSSION AND PRESENTATION
2.1 INTRODUCTION:
The Kano River Irrigation Project (KRIP) is, base on scaling land project in Nigeria, a large scale Agricultural (Irrigation) Project.
The Kano River Irrigation Project (KRIP) began as far back as 1969 with the construction of Bagauda Dam by former governor of Kano State, Late Alhaji Audu Bako. This Started at Kadawa Irrigation Project Scheme, the precursor of the KRIP. The Government quickly followed the Bagauda Dam with a much bigger dam, the Tiga Dam between 1970 and 1973 with the primary purpose of boosting agricultural production through irrigation to enhance self – reliance in food production. (Shariff, 2009).
According to the people’s Daily (2011), the first phase of the project (which was designed in Phases), is the oldest large and functioning irrigation scheme in Nigeria, with a capacity of 22 hectres and capable of producing 82,000 tones of associated farm produce; if utilized optimally. So far, there is about 16 hectres land in use.
The control of the project was now shifted from the Kano State Government to the Federal Government of Nigeria as a project under Hadejia – Jama’are River Basin Development Authority (HJRBDA).
2.2 OBJECTIVES OF THE KRIP
The main goals of KRIP are improvement of food security and effective management of water resources for the development of socio-economic activities of the people within the basin other objectives that are either independent aim to achieve the goal(s) above are:-
1. Provision of water resources for domestic, industrial and recreational uses.
2. Provision of employment in both agriculture and agro- industries.
3. Facilitation of fisheries and hydro-electric power generation.
4. Improvement of the standard of living of the basin’s inhabitants.
5. Source of income to the government.
6. flood control in the Hadejia valley.
7. To support large scale crop production to meet the steadily increasing population.

2.3 THE PROJECT ORIGINAL DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION
The initial target of the irrigation project was to cover 100,000 hectres for the benefits of Millions of families. But the first phase was commended 1971 and 1975. However, only 6,000 hectres were covered within this period under the Audu Bako Administration (Whom initiated and started the project in 1969). But in 1975, the Murtala/Obsanjo regime established the Hadiajia – Jama’are River Basin Development Authority (HJRBDA) to superintendent irrigation activities in the area and boost food production in its areas of coverage. But unfortunately, only 4,000 hectres were covered under their Operation Feed the Nation (OFN) programme up to 1979 (Shariff, 2009).
The period between 1979 and 1983 witnessed the Shehu Shagari Adminstration and its Green Revolution Programme that sought to reinvigorate agricultural production in the country. Despite all the pomp and pageantry that went with the noble programme, not much was achieved in increasing the coverage of the KRIP. In fact, only 4,000 additional hectres was actually covered. The project was surprisingly terminated in 1984 and went into limbo for nearly 20 years until the return of president Obasanjo to the state House Abuja (Shariff, 2009). During the 8 years of Obasanjo administration and partly due to the lobbying of Governor Rabiu Musa Kwakwaso and the Intervention of Emir of Kano, Alhaji Ado Bayero, the project was resuscitated and contract was awarded for the 7,000 hectres to complete first phase. But unfortunately, for over 32 years, only 17,000 out of 22,000 hectres were able to be covered for phase, 1 of the project. In other words, only 17,000 out of the 100,000 hectres for the whole (Shariff 2009).
The KRIP was designed by the Kano State ministry of Agriculture and Natural resources under the consultancy service of the Netherlands Engineering consultants (NEDECO) in 1969. a lake of 18,000 hectres was proposed after a feasibility studies was carried out by the NEDECO. The Tiga Rapid was identified which was at an upper stream and a dam was constructed between 1970 and 1974.

2.4 THE PROJECT KEY INFRASTRUCTURES
The most key infrastructures in the KRIP were selected and described here:

2.4.1 THE TIGA DAM:-
The dam (co-ordinates: 11026` North and 08024` East) constructed between 1971 and 1974 serves as the major reservoir on the Kano River, the main tributary of the Hadejia River. Water from the dam supplies the KRIP as well as the Kano city several studies have shown that the dam has delivered negative economic value when its effect on the downstream communities was taken into account (Barbier, 2002).
The dam system is divided into six (6) zones with height, length and approximate volume of 48 meters, 6,000 meters and 1,968 cubic meters respectively. There are two (2) main canals that convey water from the dam to the irrigation area, each 25 kilometers long, one to Kura irrigation area west- ward, while the other to Bunkure, East – Ward. The amount of water to be released is controlled in a respective control tower both mechanically and electrically.
There is also an outlet that forcefully discharges water into the Kano river original channel, and that is the reason why the river is active throughout the year nowadays, unlike before the construction of the dam where it is active only during the rainy season.
According to Shettima (2011), on completion of the dam the river flow downstream at Gashua in Yobe State fell by about 100 million cubic meters per year due to upstream irrigation and by more than 50million cubic meters due to evaporation from the reservoir.
A study published in 1999 concluded that farmers in the downstream floodplain had adapted their agriculture, help new technology, but increased level of production might not be sustainable (Adams et al, 1998).

2.4.2 THE RUWAN KANYA RESERVIOR
Water from Tiga reservoir is supplied to the project area through a balancing reservoir at Ruwan Kanya Near Rano where it enters a hierarchical water distribution network. The purpose of the Ruwan Kanya reservoir is to store water incase Tiga reservoir cannot discharge and also to reduce excessive flooding and erosion downstream. The length and height of the embankment of rowan Kanya reservoir are 35km and 2m respectively.

2.4.3 CROSS REGULATORS
These are drop of slopes built along main canals to suppress the velocity of water which in turn reduces the force of moving water to help curb erosion menace. They are characterized by a waterfall nature so that once water falls the velocity reduces before it gathers momentum and more again.

2.4.4 NIGHT STORAGE RESERVIORS:
These are water receiving structures at specific locations to store flow of water during the night and make it readily available for farmers to use during the day time. Night storage reservoirs are also built with the intention of fish farming as part of the original design objectives of KRIP.

2.4.5 WATER DISTRIBUTION CHANNELS:
These are channels that allow water directly to farm areas. Farmers get water directly to their farms from the channels or through pumping like in areas where there is unaddressed problem of excessive siltation.

2.5 THE KRIP APPRAISAL
This has to do with matching the implementation with the design project implementation is the actualization of the project design. The degree to which implementation matches the design depends on a number factors that are considered here as enabling and disabling factors it must be started right off that it is not all miss – match that is bad. There is good implementation of the project that matches the design as:

2.5.1 THE ENABLING FACTORS

A. Suitable area for locating the dam at an upstream area where flow of water is ensured.
B. Provision of finance from the government that aided in the running of the project.
C. The level of technology employed for the project falls in line with the level of know how of beneficiaries of the project.
D. Acceptance of the project by the beneficiaries of the project which are mostly local farmers and participation that improve their standard of living.

2.5.1 THE DISABLING FACTORS
On the other hand, factors militating against the project includes:
A. Lack of good monitoring of the project as a result of eroded ethical values from the part of officials in charge of the project especially in the aspect of equipment and facilities services.
B. The problem of aquatic weeds and siltation that impedes the free flow of water and contaminates it is another problem though natural in a way, there is lack of adequate cooperation in maintenance of canals that are blocked from the beneficiaries’ side to help clear them.
C. Inadequate and untimely release of funds for management of the project.
D. Slow completion of other phases of the project.
E. Understaffed in regards to technical officials to help to monitor and evaluate the project, which is more of administrative staff and inadequate technical staff.

2.6 AN OVERVIEW OF THE KRIP DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION
The KRIP is associated with both problems and prospect. While the
Prospects are enormous if the problems are solved.
The KRIP is one of the best land project in the world, as it depends solely on gravity for water movement up to the level of individual farms.
The major problem associated with the functioning phase 1 of the KRIP are:-
= The poor maintenance culture by the local farmers waiting for government to come and address the problem of siltation as far down as the minor water distribution channels.
= The local farmer are not willing to pay the taken yearly amount imposed on them by the government, this could be termed as poor attitudes and ethnic.
= There is also the problem of political difference between the state and federal governments, this seriously affect the issue of hydro power generation from the (Tiga dam).

3.0 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMEDATION.
3.1 CONCLUSION:
In summary, based on what was seen during the course of field study carried out, since the inception of the Kano River Irrigation project to date, conclusively, the project is a success not withstanding the disabling factors that can be checked.

3.2 RECOMMENDATION
In order to ensure smooth and continued benefits of the project, the following recommendations are suggested:
= There should be adequate funding of the project for the completion of the other phase that is still at its pilot stage.
= There should be awareness campaign and participation from beneficiaries on the importance of the maintenance of the project especially in the issues of addressing the problem of siltation and aquatic weeds.
= Management should be improve, technical hands should be increased in order to facilitate the smooth running of the project.
REFERENCE:
Adams, W.M et al (1998): Adapting to Dams: Agrarian change Downstream of the Tiga Dam, Northern Nigeria. Elsevier science Ltd.

Barbaier, E.B. (2002): Upstream dams and Downstream water allocation: A case study of Hadejia – Jama’are Flood Plain, Northern Nigeria. Department of Economics and finance, university of Wyoming.

Olofin E.A. (2011): Land project design and Appraisal. An unpublished lecture note geography department, Bayero University Kano.

Shariff, U. (2009): Food Security and Kano Irrigation project. Retrieved on 01/02/2011 from
http:// allafrica.com/stories/200903170040.html

Shettima K.A. (2009): Dam Politics in Northern Nigeria : A case study of Kafin Zaki Dam. York University, Canada.

_________(2011): Hadejia Jama’are River Basin. Retrieved on 01-02-2011 from http://peoplesdaily.com/news/agriculture/

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